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Terms in this set (11)
Explain what would happen if you tried to grow E. coli that had a mutation in the operon that prevented the repressor protein from binding, in media containing only lactose?
The E. coli will still grow since the repressor has to be off anyways for transcription of the operon to take place
What is the difference in the position (loci) of an operator (prokaryotes) and an enhancer (eukaryotes) in relation to the gene they work with
Operator must be in-between the promoter and the gene whereas enhancers must be a distance away from the gene and promoter, either up or downstream.
What are three additional mechanisms (beyond the use of enhancers and insulators) that can regulate eukaryotic gene expression?
Chromatin structure Epigenetics
Use of the nuclear membrane RNAi
What would be the effect of mutating a trans acting element (creating a null mutant) and providing a wild type trans acting element via a plasmid in a complementation test in E. coli? (1 point). What if you did the same thing with a cis acting element?
Restoration of function (complementation)
No restoration of function (no complementation)
Explain how it is possible that a large deletion in a eukaryotic chromosome might not have a phenotypic effect. (2 points) Even if it does not have a phenotypic effect, what will happen to the genes on that chromosome? (1 point) How could a deletion thousands of bases from the gene possible have a phenotypic effect?
It is in an area where there are no genes or regulatory elements Changes the loci of many genes
Deletion of a regulatory element like an enhancer or insulator
Using vision as an example, explain how specific mutations can have a detrimental effect to an organism.
Blindness or night vision loss due to specific mutation in rhodopsin or tritanopia or red color loss
Using vision as an example, explain how specific mutations can have a beneficial effect to an organism. (2 points)
The generation of color receiving proteins
What is it about the red receiving gene and green receiving gene that makes deletions and duplications relatively common with these genes (2 points)
Similarity in sequence can result in recombination
Partial: located near each other on the same (X) chromosome
Explain how a duplication of a region of DNA may take place.
X ray cutting out a section of DNA and inserting it into the homologous chromosome
Partial: insertion mutation of a tandem or non tandem repeat
Explain why having a XXX chromosomal composition is more tolerable that trisomy of an autosome.
X inactivation results in suppression of many of the extra genes on the extra chromosome
Explain how enhancers can result in decreased transcription levels in eukaryotes?
Either by repressor binding the enhancer or repressors blocking activators from working
Partial: Enhancers can repress transcription
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