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127 terms


Chapter 2&4&5&6&7&8&9&10
chemical element
a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
chemical compound
a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions
a positively or negatively charged atom
smallest unit of most compounds.
van derr wall forces
when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can form from the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. this attraction
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
attraction between molecules of diff substances
a material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
all components are evenly dispersed & dissolved
mixtures of water and nondissolved materials
any compound that forms H+ ions in solution
any compound that forms OH- ions in solution
covalent bond
formed when e- are shared between atoms. when atoms share 2 electrons-single bond 4electrons-double bond
ionic bond
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a process in which large compounds, (polymers or macromoleucules) are built by joining smaller ones (monomers) together
they join together to form polymers. these small compounds may be identical or different
the result of monomers joining together in polymerization
single sugar molecules
the large macromolecules from from monosacchrides
chemical reaction
a process that changes 1 set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
the elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
energy required to get a reaction started
a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering a reaction's activation energy
proteins that act as biological catalysts in cells
the reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
greenhouse gases
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, & a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy & maintain Earth's temp range
cold water near poles sinks and flows parallel to the ocean's bottom, then rising again in warmer regions
biotic factors
the biological influence on organimsm within an ecosystem. the entire biological community-birds, trees, mushrooms
abiotic factors
physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems- climate, humidity, nutrient availability, soil type, wind, sunlight
the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
ecological resource
any necessity of life, water, nutrients, light, space
ecological succession
as an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out, and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community
greenhouse affect
natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases.
the average, year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. scientists average info for 30 years
the day to day condition of earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
competitive exclusion principle
no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
when predation occurs, the organism that does the killing and eating
when predation occurs, the organism that is the food
any relationship in which 2 species live closely together
primary succession
on land, a succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists.
the climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate surrounding it
organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of the ocean
wetlands formed where rives meet the ocean; the mouth of river/stream meets the ocean.
geographic distribution
area inhabited by a population
population density
# of individduals per unit area
movement of individuals into an area
movement of individuals out of an area
carrying capacity
largest # of individuals that a given enviroment can support
limiting factor
factor that causes population growth to decrease
the scientific study of human population
renewable resource
resource that can regenerate and are therefore replaceable
nonrenewable resources
a resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes
loss of forests
soil erosion
the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind
a process of turning once productive areas into deserts
the sum total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere
endangered species
a specie who's population is declining in a way that places it in danger
cell membrane
a thin flexible barrier around the cell
cell wall
a strong layer around the cell membrane
a large structure that contains the genetic materials & controls most of cell's processes
the material inside the cell membrane excluding the nucleus
a group of similia cells that perform aparticular function
many groups of tissues working together
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food
endoplasmic reticulum
an internal membrane system in which componets of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
small particle of rna andprotein that produces protein following instructions from nucleus
saclike structure that stores materials
filled with enzymes used to break down food into particles that can be used
light-absorbing molecules
a plant's principle pigment
saclike photosynthetic membrane
stack of thylakoids
the space outside the thylakoid membranes
light-dependent reactions
produce oxygen gas and convert ADP & NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP&NADPH
calvin cycle
uses ATP & NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 celsius degree
cellular respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
the process in which 1 molecul of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid , a 3-carboncompound
releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen
not in air
in air
both species benfit from relationship
one member of relationship benefits, and the other isn't helped or harmed
one organism lives on or inside another organism & harms it
krebs cycle
pyruvic acid from glycolysis is used to make carbon dioxied, NADH, ATP, and FADH2
electron transport chain
uses high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
one pair of identitical chromosomes created by chromosome replication prior to cell division.
the area where cromosomes are attatched
the division of the cell nucleus & cytokinis takes place
two tiny structures located in cytoplasam near nuclear envelop
fanlike microtubule structure that helps spereate chromosomes
the division of the cytoplasm itself
a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
internal regulators
proteins that respond to events inside the cell
growth factors
proteins that respond to events outside the cell
each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond
there is at least 1 carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid
a lipid's fatty acids contain more than one double bond
enzyme-substrate complex
formed when an enzyme and a substrate bind together
ecological pyramid
a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web
limiting nutrient
when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient thats scarce or cycles very slowly, what is that nutrient called?
polar zone
cold areas around north&south poles 60-90
temperate zone
ranges from hot to cold depending on season, between the polar zones & the tropics. 30-60
tropics zone
almost always warm areas near the equator 30N&30S
secondary succession
when a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what follows?
tradgedy of the commons
the notion that any resource thats open to everyone, like air, or part of the ocean will eventually be destroyed because everyone can use it, but no one is held responsible for preserving it
the accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of individual organism
biological magnification
the increasing concentration of a harmful substance increase in organisms @ a high trophic level in a food chain or web
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in length that maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for organelles, form centrioles in cell division
long, thin fibers 7 nanometers in diameter that support the cell, moves organelles within the cell
lipid bilayer
the double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
selectively permeable
some substances can pass across them& others can't
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
the energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store energy
carrier molecule
a compound that can accept a pair of high energy e- & transfer them along with their energy to another molecule
NADPH, ATP, & oxygen
the products of light dependent reactions
chromatin condense into chromosomes, centrioles seperate & a spindle begins to form. nuclear membrane breaks down.
chromosome line up across the center of cell. each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber @ its centromere
sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
chromosomes gather @ opposite ends of the cell& lose their distinct shape. 2 new nuclear membranes form