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a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions
van derr wall forces
when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can form from the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. this attraction
a material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
formed when e- are shared between atoms. when atoms share 2 electrons-single bond 4electrons-double bond
a process in which large compounds, (polymers or macromoleucules) are built by joining smaller ones (monomers) together
a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering a reaction's activation energy
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, & a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy & maintain Earth's temp range
cold water near poles sinks and flows parallel to the ocean's bottom, then rising again in warmer regions
the biological influence on organimsm within an ecosystem. the entire biological community-birds, trees, mushrooms
physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems- climate, humidity, nutrient availability, soil type, wind, sunlight
the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
as an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out, and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community
the average, year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. scientists average info for 30 years
competitive exclusion principle
no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
the climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate surrounding it
an internal membrane system in which componets of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
produce oxygen gas and convert ADP & NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP&NADPH
the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
the process in which 1 molecul of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid , a 3-carboncompound
one pair of identitical chromosomes created by chromosome replication prior to cell division.
each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond
a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web
when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient thats scarce or cycles very slowly, what is that nutrient called?
ranges from hot to cold depending on season, between the polar zones & the tropics. 30-60
when a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what follows?
tradgedy of the commons
the notion that any resource thats open to everyone, like air, or part of the ocean will eventually be destroyed because everyone can use it, but no one is held responsible for preserving it
the increasing concentration of a harmful substance increase in organisms @ a high trophic level in a food chain or web
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in length that maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for organelles, form centrioles in cell division
long, thin fibers 7 nanometers in diameter that support the cell, moves organelles within the cell
the energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
a compound that can accept a pair of high energy e- & transfer them along with their energy to another molecule
chromatin condense into chromosomes, centrioles seperate & a spindle begins to form. nuclear membrane breaks down.
chromosome line up across the center of cell. each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber @ its centromere
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