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Chapter 2&4&5&6&7&8&9&10

chemical element

a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom

chemical compound

a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions


a positively or negatively charged atom


smallest unit of most compounds.

van derr wall forces

when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can form from the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. this attraction


an attraction between molecules of the same substance


attraction between molecules of diff substances


a material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined


all components are evenly dispersed & dissolved


mixtures of water and nondissolved materials


any compound that forms H+ ions in solution


any compound that forms OH- ions in solution

covalent bond

formed when e- are shared between atoms. when atoms share 2 electrons-single bond 4electrons-double bond

ionic bond

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another


a process in which large compounds, (polymers or macromoleucules) are built by joining smaller ones (monomers) together


they join together to form polymers. these small compounds may be identical or different


the result of monomers joining together in polymerization


single sugar molecules


the large macromolecules from from monosacchrides

chemical reaction

a process that changes 1 set of chemicals into another set of chemicals


the elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction


the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

activation energy

energy required to get a reaction started


a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering a reaction's activation energy


proteins that act as biological catalysts in cells


the reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

greenhouse gases

carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, & a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy & maintain Earth's temp range


cold water near poles sinks and flows parallel to the ocean's bottom, then rising again in warmer regions

biotic factors

the biological influence on organimsm within an ecosystem. the entire biological community-birds, trees, mushrooms

abiotic factors

physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems- climate, humidity, nutrient availability, soil type, wind, sunlight


the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions

ecological resource

any necessity of life, water, nutrients, light, space

ecological succession

as an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out, and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community

greenhouse affect

natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases.


the average, year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. scientists average info for 30 years


the day to day condition of earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

competitive exclusion principle

no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time


an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism


when predation occurs, the organism that does the killing and eating


when predation occurs, the organism that is the food


any relationship in which 2 species live closely together

primary succession

on land, a succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists.


the climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate surrounding it


organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of the ocean


wetlands formed where rives meet the ocean; the mouth of river/stream meets the ocean.

geographic distribution

area inhabited by a population

population density

# of individduals per unit area


movement of individuals into an area


movement of individuals out of an area

carrying capacity

largest # of individuals that a given enviroment can support

limiting factor

factor that causes population growth to decrease


the scientific study of human population

renewable resource

resource that can regenerate and are therefore replaceable

nonrenewable resources

a resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes


loss of forests

soil erosion

the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind


a process of turning once productive areas into deserts


the sum total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere

endangered species

a specie who's population is declining in a way that places it in danger

cell membrane

a thin flexible barrier around the cell

cell wall

a strong layer around the cell membrane


a large structure that contains the genetic materials & controls most of cell's processes


the material inside the cell membrane excluding the nucleus


a group of similia cells that perform aparticular function


many groups of tissues working together

organ system

a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function


uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds

golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins


uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food

endoplasmic reticulum

an internal membrane system in which componets of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed


small particle of rna andprotein that produces protein following instructions from nucleus


saclike structure that stores materials


filled with enzymes used to break down food into particles that can be used


light-absorbing molecules


a plant's principle pigment


saclike photosynthetic membrane


stack of thylakoids


the space outside the thylakoid membranes

light-dependent reactions

produce oxygen gas and convert ADP & NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP&NADPH

calvin cycle

uses ATP & NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars


the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 celsius degree

cellular respiration

the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen


the process in which 1 molecul of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid , a 3-carboncompound


releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen


not in air


in air


both species benfit from relationship


one member of relationship benefits, and the other isn't helped or harmed


one organism lives on or inside another organism & harms it

krebs cycle

pyruvic acid from glycolysis is used to make carbon dioxied, NADH, ATP, and FADH2

electron transport chain

uses high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP


one pair of identitical chromosomes created by chromosome replication prior to cell division.


the area where cromosomes are attatched


the division of the cell nucleus & cytokinis takes place


two tiny structures located in cytoplasam near nuclear envelop


fanlike microtubule structure that helps spereate chromosomes


the division of the cytoplasm itself


a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth


regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

internal regulators

proteins that respond to events inside the cell

growth factors

proteins that respond to events outside the cell


each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond


there is at least 1 carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid


a lipid's fatty acids contain more than one double bond

enzyme-substrate complex

formed when an enzyme and a substrate bind together

ecological pyramid

a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web

limiting nutrient

when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient thats scarce or cycles very slowly, what is that nutrient called?

polar zone

cold areas around north&south poles 60-90

temperate zone

ranges from hot to cold depending on season, between the polar zones & the tropics. 30-60

tropics zone

almost always warm areas near the equator 30N&30S

secondary succession

when a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what follows?

tradgedy of the commons

the notion that any resource thats open to everyone, like air, or part of the ocean will eventually be destroyed because everyone can use it, but no one is held responsible for preserving it


the accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of individual organism

biological magnification

the increasing concentration of a harmful substance increase in organisms @ a high trophic level in a food chain or web


hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in length that maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for organelles, form centrioles in cell division


long, thin fibers 7 nanometers in diameter that support the cell, moves organelles within the cell

lipid bilayer

the double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes

selectively permeable

some substances can pass across them& others can't


the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

active transport

the energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration


one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store energy

carrier molecule

a compound that can accept a pair of high energy e- & transfer them along with their energy to another molecule

NADPH, ATP, & oxygen

the products of light dependent reactions


chromatin condense into chromosomes, centrioles seperate & a spindle begins to form. nuclear membrane breaks down.


chromosome line up across the center of cell. each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber @ its centromere


sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart


chromosomes gather @ opposite ends of the cell& lose their distinct shape. 2 new nuclear membranes form

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