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127 terms

Finals

Chapter 2&4&5&6&7&8&9&10
STUDY
PLAY
chemical element
a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
chemical compound
a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions
ion
a positively or negatively charged atom
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds.
van derr wall forces
when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can form from the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. this attraction
cohesion
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
attraction between molecules of diff substances
mixture
a material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
solution
all components are evenly dispersed & dissolved
suspension
mixtures of water and nondissolved materials
acid
any compound that forms H+ ions in solution
base
any compound that forms OH- ions in solution
covalent bond
formed when e- are shared between atoms. when atoms share 2 electrons-single bond 4electrons-double bond
ionic bond
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
polymerization
a process in which large compounds, (polymers or macromoleucules) are built by joining smaller ones (monomers) together
monomers
they join together to form polymers. these small compounds may be identical or different
polymers
the result of monomers joining together in polymerization
monosacchrides
single sugar molecules
polysacchrides
the large macromolecules from from monosacchrides
chemical reaction
a process that changes 1 set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactants
the elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction
products
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
energy required to get a reaction started
catalysts
a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering a reaction's activation energy
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts in cells
substrates
the reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
greenhouse gases
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, & a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy & maintain Earth's temp range
upwelling
cold water near poles sinks and flows parallel to the ocean's bottom, then rising again in warmer regions
biotic factors
the biological influence on organimsm within an ecosystem. the entire biological community-birds, trees, mushrooms
abiotic factors
physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems- climate, humidity, nutrient availability, soil type, wind, sunlight
niche
the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
ecological resource
any necessity of life, water, nutrients, light, space
ecological succession
as an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out, and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community
greenhouse affect
natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases.
climate
the average, year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. scientists average info for 30 years
weather
the day to day condition of earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
competitive exclusion principle
no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
predation
an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
predator
when predation occurs, the organism that does the killing and eating
prey
when predation occurs, the organism that is the food
symbiosis
any relationship in which 2 species live closely together
primary succession
on land, a succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists.
microclimate
the climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate surrounding it
benthos
organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of the ocean
estuary
wetlands formed where rives meet the ocean; the mouth of river/stream meets the ocean.
geographic distribution
area inhabited by a population
population density
# of individduals per unit area
immigration
movement of individuals into an area
emmigration
movement of individuals out of an area
carrying capacity
largest # of individuals that a given enviroment can support
limiting factor
factor that causes population growth to decrease
demography
the scientific study of human population
renewable resource
resource that can regenerate and are therefore replaceable
nonrenewable resources
a resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes
deforestation
loss of forests
soil erosion
the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind
desertification
a process of turning once productive areas into deserts
biodiversity
the sum total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere
endangered species
a specie who's population is declining in a way that places it in danger
cell membrane
a thin flexible barrier around the cell
cell wall
a strong layer around the cell membrane
nucleus
a large structure that contains the genetic materials & controls most of cell's processes
cytoplasm
the material inside the cell membrane excluding the nucleus
tissue
a group of similia cells that perform aparticular function
organ
many groups of tissues working together
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
mitochondrion
uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins
chloroplast
uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food
endoplasmic reticulum
an internal membrane system in which componets of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
ribosome
small particle of rna andprotein that produces protein following instructions from nucleus
vacuole
saclike structure that stores materials
lysosome
filled with enzymes used to break down food into particles that can be used
pigment
light-absorbing molecules
chlorophyll
a plant's principle pigment
thylakoids
saclike photosynthetic membrane
grana
stack of thylakoids
stroma
the space outside the thylakoid membranes
light-dependent reactions
produce oxygen gas and convert ADP & NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP&NADPH
calvin cycle
uses ATP & NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
calorie
the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 celsius degree
cellular respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
gylcolysis
the process in which 1 molecul of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid , a 3-carboncompound
fermentation
releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen
anaerobic
not in air
aerobic
in air
mutualism
both species benfit from relationship
commensalism
one member of relationship benefits, and the other isn't helped or harmed
parasitism
one organism lives on or inside another organism & harms it
krebs cycle
pyruvic acid from glycolysis is used to make carbon dioxied, NADH, ATP, and FADH2
electron transport chain
uses high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
chromatid
one pair of identitical chromosomes created by chromosome replication prior to cell division.
centromere
the area where cromosomes are attatched
mitosis
the division of the cell nucleus & cytokinis takes place
centrioles
two tiny structures located in cytoplasam near nuclear envelop
spindle
fanlike microtubule structure that helps spereate chromosomes
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm itself
cancer
a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
cyclin
regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
internal regulators
proteins that respond to events inside the cell
growth factors
proteins that respond to events outside the cell
saturated
each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond
unsaturated
there is at least 1 carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid
polyunsaturated
a lipid's fatty acids contain more than one double bond
enzyme-substrate complex
formed when an enzyme and a substrate bind together
ecological pyramid
a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web
limiting nutrient
when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient thats scarce or cycles very slowly, what is that nutrient called?
polar zone
cold areas around north&south poles 60-90
temperate zone
ranges from hot to cold depending on season, between the polar zones & the tropics. 30-60
tropics zone
almost always warm areas near the equator 30N&30S
secondary succession
when a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what follows?
tradgedy of the commons
the notion that any resource thats open to everyone, like air, or part of the ocean will eventually be destroyed because everyone can use it, but no one is held responsible for preserving it
bioacculmulation
the accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of individual organism
biological magnification
the increasing concentration of a harmful substance increase in organisms @ a high trophic level in a food chain or web
microtubule
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in length that maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for organelles, form centrioles in cell division
microfilaments
long, thin fibers 7 nanometers in diameter that support the cell, moves organelles within the cell
lipid bilayer
the double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
selectively permeable
some substances can pass across them& others can't
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
the energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
ATP
one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store energy
carrier molecule
a compound that can accept a pair of high energy e- & transfer them along with their energy to another molecule
NADPH, ATP, & oxygen
the products of light dependent reactions
prophase
chromatin condense into chromosomes, centrioles seperate & a spindle begins to form. nuclear membrane breaks down.
metaphase
chromosome line up across the center of cell. each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber @ its centromere
anaphase
sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
telophase
chromosomes gather @ opposite ends of the cell& lose their distinct shape. 2 new nuclear membranes form