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Terms in this set (145)
Organs in the Circulatory System
*Heart - pumps blood throughout the body
*Blood-fluid that brings nutrients and removes waste
*Blood Vessels - the containers for blood, the tubes
Red Blood Cells
carry oxygen to cells (your blood is red when you bleed because it contains oxygen)
White Blood Cells
Attacks foreign things in blood -fights infections like soldiers
fluid part of the blood - the wet part
Parts of the Blood
Red blood cells
White blood cells
helps to clot blood - make scabs
blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart
blood vessel that carries blood between the arteries and veins
Blood vessel that carries blood into the heart
System that works with the Circulatory System
*The Respiratory System
* The Digestive System
How does the circulatory system and respiratory system work together?
*The lungs give oxygen to the bloodstream and the blood carries it to the cells
*The blood takes carbon dioxide FROM cells and brings it back to the lungs to be released
How does the circulatory system work with the digestive system?
the circulatory system delivers nutrients from the digestion process to the cells where it is needed
force applied by blood to the artery walls
Steps to blood flow of O2 rich blood (There are 5)
*LUNGS pick up O2 to deliver to the cells
Functions of the Respiratory System (3)
1. Gets oxygen from air and gives to bloodstream (inhaling)
2. Releases carbon dioxide waste from cells (exhaling)
3. Allows us to speak
Structures of the Respiratory System
Nose and Mouth,
Nose and Mouth
warms, filters and moistens the air
(throat) tube that leads
from nose to mouth and
branches off to larynx (air)
and esophagus (food)
(wind pipe or tree trunk) tube
carries air from larynx to lungs
sponge-like organs responsible for gas exchange
tiny tubes branching off from each bronchi
sacs at the end of bronchioles
where oxygen enters the blood stream and
carbon dioxide is removed from the blood stream (like a store)
dome shaped muscle under lungs that expands and contracts to allow air in and out of the lungs.
Bronchi or Bronchial Tube
(Large branches) tube leading from trachea to each lung
Voice Box - contains the vocal chords
movement of WATER from areas of higher to lower concentration
Movement of materials from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration where it is needed. This requires energy to occur, unlike diffusion
upper chambers, receive blood from the lungs or body
lower chambers, pump blood out of the heart
a protective covering surrounding the heart, a fluid filled sac
blood flow to and from the tissues of the heart itself
blood flow from heart to the lungs and back again
oxygen-rich blood flows to all the organs and body tissues, except the heart and lungs; oxygen -poor blood returns to the heart.
are blood vessels that direct blood away from the heart. They have thick elastic walls that contain smooth muscle tissue.
are the smallest blood vessels in the body. (strand of hair is 10 times wider). Blood cells pass through the capillaries in a single line. As they pass, nutients, oxygen, and other kinds of substances diffuse into the capillary walls.
thin walled; carry blood BACK to the heart; contain one-way valves to prevent back flow of blood
the rhythmic expansion and contraction of the arteries due to pressure
Aorta and Pulmonary Arteries
superior and inferior vena cava
prevent backward flow of blood.
Force of blood on the walls of blood vessels; highest in arteries and lowest in veins
Liquid part of blood, made mostly of water, nutrients, minerals, and oxygen dissolved in plasma, and carries waste from cells.
55% of total blood volume
7% blood proteins (fibrinogen, albumin, globulin)
Red Blood Cells
Supply body with oxygen, 5million RBC's, contains hemoglobin, a protein that uses iron to carry oxygen. Carries away carbon dioxide and waste.
White Blood Cells
Fight bacteria, viruses and infection, 5000-10000 WBC's, Body increases number of WBC in reaction to invaders, enter infected tissues and absorb dead cells. Fight pathogens
Help Clot blood to heal wounds; work with clotting factors in blood to release FIBRIN to stop blood flow. Pieces of larger cells found in bone marrow.
Functions of BLOOD
Carries Oxygen(O2) from lungs to body cells; Transports nutrients to body cells; Carries carbon dioxide (co2) from cells to lungs (to be exhaled); Carries waste products to kidneys for removal; Cells and molecules in blood help fight infections and heal wounds
Three different types of blood vessels
Arteries, Capillaries, and Veins
Three types of circulation
Coronary, Pulmonary, Systemic
Structure of Heart
Controls flow of blood through all parts of body; four chambers; one way valves between atria and ventricles; Septum
Normal blood pressure
More than twice the circumference of the earth
If all the blood vessels in your body were strung together, the total length would be
hollow tube that transport blood throughout your body.
two upper chambers of the heart
Number of chambers in the heart
Approximate number of beats per minute by the heart
5-6 liters of blood per minute
The heart circulates approximately
about the size of your fist
The heart is a muscular organ
Your heart pumps
oxygen poor blood into the lungs and oxygen rich blood to your body.
liquid connective tissue made up of White Blood Cells and Red Blood Cells (45%) and Plasma (55%).
Components: Blood, heart, blood vessels. Transports materials to and from your cells.
cardio means heart and vascular means vessel.
ability to maintain internal environment
Homeostasis maintains what?
What does dynamic equilibrium state
states as one thing or process changes, other things of processes change as well
What is a negative feedback
when one change produces another change which reverse the initial change ex. hunger
How do the nervous system and the muscular system maintain homeostasis (3 ways)
nerves reach muscles, causes muscles to contract or relax. allows body to move. allows muscular organs of body to contract or relax.
How do the excretory system and the digestive system maintain homeostasis (2 ways)
1. provides energy for kidneys to form glucose. removes waste from digestion of proteins.
2. insulin production by the pancreas controls blood sugar levels.
3. water is excreated in the form of sweat and evaporation of sweat leads to cooling/ temperature regulation.
4. excreation of water (and salts) through sweat and urine maintains equilibrium of fluid levels.
How do the circulatory system and the respiratory system maintain homeostasis ( ways)
capillary beds wrap around alveoli. o2 goes into blood to lung. co2 goes into lung from blood. faster breathing. increase in respiration/more co2 in blood
What are the levels of organization in a human body? (from smallest to largest)
cells, tissues, organs, and organ system.
What is tissue?
it is a group of similar cells that perform the same function.
What are four basic types of tissues? give examples.
-muscle: biceps (skeletal), stomach (smooth), heart (cardiac)
-nervous: central nervous system (CNS) peripheral nerves (PNS)
-connective: blood, bone, and fat
-ephithelial: skin and cavity linings
What is muscle tissue?
-formed by muscle cells
-can contract or shorten
-makes parts of body move
What is nervous tissue?
-carried electical messages back and forth between the brain and other parts of the body
-directs and controls movement process
-ex. brain cells
What is connective tissue?
-provides support for your body
-connects all of its parts
-ex. bone tissue and fat`
What is epithelial tissue?
-covers the surface of your body inside and out
-protcts the delicate structures beneath it
-ex. skin and lining of your digestive system
What is an organ?
a stucture that is composed of different kinds of tissue.
What organ contains all four kinds of tissue?
What is an organ system?
a group of organs that work together to perform a major function
How many organ systems are there? name some.
-circulatory, skeletal, nervous, digestive, musclular, excretory
What is homeostatis?
the process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment (internal balance)
How do we maintain homeostatis?
sweating and shivering help to regulate our temperature?
What is stress?
the reaction of your body to potentially threatening, challenging, or disturbing events
ex: bike race-body releases adrenaline and carries more oxygen to body cells
What are the three types of connective tissue?
ligaments, tendons, cartilage
What is a ligament?
elastic fibers which hold bones together
What is a tendon?
connective tissue which joins muscle to bone
What is cartilage?
flexible, lacks blood supply
Controls all involuntary and voluntary movements, allows muscles to moves. I.E Muscles
Supports and structures the body, creates blood cells, and connects bone with muscle and bone with bone. I.E Bones and Connective tissue
Releases excess water and releases the wastes from the body. I.E Kidneys and Bladders
Breaks down food and gives the body nutrients. Lets water enter the body, as well. I.E Stomach and intestines
Releases hormones to keep conditions stable in the body. Controls growth and reproduction. I.E Pituitary gland and pancreas
Takes in information on one's surroundings, processes the information and commands body. I.E Brain and spinal cord
Connects bone to bone
Connects muscles to bone
Protects the delicate structures of the body and lines internal organs
Allows body to move and function
Enables one to sense their surroundings, enables one the think, see, and hear
Connects and supports body parts and muscle, bone and fat examples.
Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal
What are the three types of muscles?
a body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move
a body tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body
a body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts
a body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and out
a group of organs that work together to perform a major function in the body
the process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
a major organ of the excretory system that removes urea and other wastes from the blood
a sacklike muscular organ that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body
the reaction of a person's body to potentially threatening, challenging, or disturbing events
skin, hair, and nails that protect your body from injury and bacteria, and regulate body temperature
bones and connective tissues that support body and give it structure
work to move your body by pulling on your skeleton (system)
carries food and oxygen to all cells in body and collects waste that must be removed
takes in oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide
removes wastes from the bloodstream
protects your body from disease-causing bacteria and viruses, or pathogens
takes in information from the environment and from within your body
helps regulate the activities of organs and organ systems by releasing hormones
A network of organs and tissues that collect the fluid that leaks from blood and returns it to blood vessels.
Includes: Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and lymph.
The organ system that protects the body from water loss or abrasion from the outside.
Includes: Skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves.
The organ system whose primary function is to support and protect the body and allow the body to move.
The organ system whose primary function is movement and flexibility.
A collection of organs whose primary function is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide.
Include: lungs, throat, and the passageways that lead to the lungs.
Also known as the cardiovascular system. A collection of organs whose primary function is to transport blood throughout the body. Includes: Heart, arteries, veins.
The structures that control the actions and reactions of the body in response to stimuli from the environment.
Formed by billions of specialized nerve cells, called neurons.
The organs that break down food so that it can be used by the body.
The system that collects and excretes nitrogenous wastes and excess water from the body in the form of urine.
External Stimulus (Stimuli)
A signal (stimulus) that originates from outside an organism.
Internal Stimulus (Stimuli)
A signal (stimulus) that originates from inside an organism.
Process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food.
A group of similar cells that perform a common function.
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.
A group of organs that work together to perform body functions.
A living thing.
Anything that can carry out life processes independently.
The appearance changes, but the substance does not.
Examples: Melting, boiling, breaking, cutting.
A process in which a substance is changed into one or more substances.
A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon.
Two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond.
A class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber.
Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
The maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment.
A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
The transfer of energy to an object by using a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force.
A push or pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of an object.
Functions of the heart
Which expected effect of temperature increase on arctic ecosystems will increase carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
what cells constitute the upper motor neurons that descend to brainstem and spinal cord?
What is the most inclusive taxonomic category?
What are the key differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
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