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What is Antigenic DRIFT inregaurds to Influenza
Minor or gradual changes in HA and NA,
A and B strains
Requires annual reformulation of the influenza vaccine
What is Antigenic SHIFT inregaurds to Influenza
Complete or major change in H and N,
anitgenically appears as new organism not recognized by the host
Major shifts associated with pandemics
Only influenza A
What is a mode of transmisson of influenza
Droplets via the respiratory system and or direct contact with infected fomites
What are some preventive measures inregaurds to Influenza
What are some control of patient methods for influenza
report to local health authority
What are some signs and symptoms of Meningococcal Meningitis
What must be done immediately even before lab results return in regaurds to Meningitis
Can be treated with Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin
What are signs and symptoms of Streptococcal infections
Tender, enlarged cervical lymph nodes
May be accompanied by otis media
Scarlet fever occurs when the infecting strain of streptococcus produces a...
pyrogenic exotoxin; in which the patient is sensitized but not immune to the toxin
Presumptive diagnosis of active disease Tuberculosis is made by the demonstration of acid- fast bacilli in stainded smears from...
sputum and other body fluids
Scombroid fish poisoning (histamine posion) causes
Tingling and burning sensation around the mouth and rash
Preventive measures for Scombroid fish poisioning
Adequate refrigeration and irradation to prevent spoilage
Organophosh insecticides signs and symptoms include
chest pain cyanosis, confusion, twitching and convulsions
Cooking materials contaminated with toxic metals cause
Vomitting, nausea, paresis of facial muscles, pain in throat
What is the treatment for botulism
IV administration of 1 vial polyvalent (AB or ABE) as soon as possible
What is a reservoir for botulism
soil, marine sediment, intestinal tracts of animals and fish, and honey
Incubation period for botulism
Avg: 12-36 hrs, the shorter the incubation period the more severe the disease
What is the most common bacterial food bourne illness in the US
Campylobacter Enteritis or Campylobacter jejuni
What is the infectious agent of Clostridium perfringens food bourne intoxications
C. perfringens and C. welchii and Type C strains
Almost all outbreaks of clostridium perfringens outbreaks are associated with inadquately heated/reheated
Meats,stews,meat pies and gravy
What is the infectious agent of Staphylococcus intoxication
Several enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and can also be stable at boiling temperatures
What is a mode of transmission for staph
Associated conditions of infected cut, boils, acne, and or URI
What is a method of control for staph
Keep hot food above 140 degress and cold food cold food below 41 degrees
What are some signs and symptoms of Shigellosis
Stools may contain blood, mucus and pus or a watery diarrhea
What are some signs and symptoms of cholera
Rapid dehydration, Acidosis, depletion of alkaline reserves of the body creating an acid pH in the body tissues and ciruclatory collapse
What is the infectious agent of Vibrio Parahemolyticus Enteritis
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (halophilic vibrio) which requires high levels of slat to produce optimal growth
What are reservoirs for V. Parahemolyticus Enteritis
Cold season: marine silt
Warm season: Coastal waters, fish, and shellfish
What is the most dangerous infectious agent of E. coli
Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) serotype 0157:H7
shiga toxin which may reslut in hemolytic uremic syndrome
Food and child care workers with E.coli must provide 2 successive negative fecal samples greater than ...
48 hrs after antibiotic therapy
Menningitis is transfered via....
Direct conatct, respiratory droplets from nose and throat especially in crowded conditions
Confirmatory diagnosis of Tuberculosis is done by...
Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on culture
How is Tuberculosis transmitted
Exposure to bacilli in airborne droplet nuclei by:
A sign and symptom of Diptheria is characterized by a lesion marked by a patch or patches of
Adherent grayish membrane with surrounding inflammation
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