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Exam 2 Essay Questions - PSYC 4800
Intro to Clinical Practices Exam 2
Terms in this set (4)
Discuss the overall purpose of diagnosis in mental health practice. Be sure to include pros and cons of the process. Include coverage of the three types of diagnostic models.
The diagnostic process entails associating a client's behavior with the symptoms presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Mental health practitioners evaluate the behaviors of the individual, define it on a spectrum of abnormality and categorize the symptoms based on the diagnostic criteria that would help them move forward with further assessment and treatment. The three models of diagnosis include theoretical, categorical and dimensional. While this process would help identify and communicate a disorder that would not be as treatable in other medical fields, doing so also involves dealing with the culture-related stigmas and stereotypes involved in mental health. Once diagnosed, one is labeled and sworn off into an individuality that considers them anything but normal.
Define and discuss the importance or reliability and validity, and the relationship between the two. Make sure to label and define the types discussed in class. Then, evaluate the relative reliability and validity of projective tests and personality inventories.
Reliability and validity are contributing qualities to assessments conducted by clinical psychologists. An Assessment's reliability depends on its ability to maintain the same results consistently. There are three types of reliability. Test-retest reliability refers to having consistency over time. Interrupter reliability calls for consistency across administrators. Lastly, internal reliability involves reliability across items or components. The overall factor of reliability however, cannot be affirmed without validity as it makes sure that we measure what was intended to measure. There are two types of validity. Concurrent validity ensures that results correlate with another measure at some point in time. Predictive validity ensures that results involve a future outcome or criterion. In terms of reliability and validity, projective tests do not have much of either because they are dependent on an individuals interpretation. Taking Inkblot Tests for example, you would be more likely to measure the validity in terms of effectiveness rather than reliability because they are intended to evoke different emotions for each individual. Personality inventories suggest higher reliability and validity as they are structured and vary based on different disorders that has already been established with a scale.
The referral question is the bassi for any assessment, Describe what is meant by the referral question, and the decisions made in an assessment based on a referral question. Then, give a specific example of a referral question and how those decisions would reflect that example.
A referral question would be considered a close-ended question that helps the evaluator guide the process during assessment. This would be the ultimate question that needs to be answered based on what is discovered from assessing the individual. An evaluator might make certain connections or ask the client to expand on certain things, just to draw back to that referral question. A question could be, " Does the child have any emotional needs that should be met at home?" With this question, the evaluator might ask the child to tell them what a typical day at home with their parents are like. In which the child might respond that their parents go to their rooms immediately. This might prompt the evaluator to ask if their parent's behavior upsets them, drawing back to the referral question.
Describe the impact of the level of structure and directiveness on the degrees o which a clinician can efficiently gather information as well as establish rapport in clinical interviewing. Be sure to define all relevant terms (e.g., structure, directiveness, rapport). Describe what might be the most ideal levels of structure and directiveness to best accomplish interview goals.
When conducting a clinical interview, the evaluator is dependent on what the client is willing to share. This means that there should be an environment that makes them comfortable. Structure and directiveness are two powerful factors that can compromise the process and progress of establishing a rapport, or relationship with a client. This relationship involves openness , non-judgement and understanding. Structure is the course of the interview, where the evaluator is allowed to guide and manipulate the process which in turn, impacts the clients progress. This structure is enforced by the evaluators state of directiveness, or control. With more structure and directiveness comes a better likelihood of conducting interviews but less likely to achieve rapport. The most ideal level of structure is medium, which involves more open-ended questions and freedom for the client. More directiveness would be more ideal because it would show the client that you are engaged while maintaining the course of the interview.
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