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Periodic Table

Chart with elements organized in regular cycles or groups


Consists of atoms with the same number of protons.


A horizontal row of elements on the PT- chemical properties change in a regular way


Vertical column on PT- Elements have similar properties.


Left hand side of the PT- Malleable, ductile, solid, shiny, and conduct heat and electricity


Right hand side of the PT- Not metals, poor conductors of heat and electricity.


Group 17 on the PT

Inert/Noble gases

Group 18 on the PT- Unreactive due to full outer shell


the smallest particle an element can be divided into- positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons.


Two or more atoms chemically joined


two or more different atom chemically joined


Positively charged particle found in the nucleus- also the atomic number


neutral particle found in the nucleus- part on the mass


Negatively charged particle with very little mass- orbits the nucleus.


positively charged centre of an atom- made up on protons and neutrons and is the heavy part.

Mass number

Number of proton and electrons added together in the nucleus- what makes an element heavy

Atomic number

Number of protons in the nucleus- same as the number of electrons

Electron configuration

Order the electrons are arranged

Ionic compound

Made up of oppositely charged ions. Fill other shell of electrons are made by donating electrons. (metal-nonmetal)

Covalent compound

Compound made up of sharing electrons to get a full outer shell. (nonmetal-nonmetal)


charged atom or group of atoms


The same element but different mass number. Same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Rate of reaction

how fast a reaction occurs

Collision theory

A reaction will only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy and at the right angle

Surface area and rate of reaction

surface area increases the number of collisions between particles per second so increases the rate of reaction.

Temperature and rate of reaction

Particles have more energy at higher temperatures. This increases number of collisions per second and the effectiveness of the collisions. Increases ROR

Concentration and rate of reaction

Increases number of particles so increases number of collisions per second. Increases the ROR

Catalyst and rate of reaction

Increased the effectiveness of collisions so it increases the ROR. They dont get used up in the reaction


pH less that 7. Produces H+ ions. Can neutralise a base


pH greater that 7. produces OH- ions. Metal oxides or hydroxides are bases. Can neutralise acids

Lime water

Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2. Base- used to test for carbon dioxide- goes cloudy

pH scale

A way of measuring thow acidic or basic a substance is - less that 7= acid. 7=neutral. More than 7= base


pH of 7. Neither acidic or basic. Acid and base cancel each other out.

Acid + Base (metal oxide/hydroxide)

= Salt + water

Acid + Carbonate

= Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide

Metal + Oxygen

= Metal Oxide

Acid + Metal

= Salt + Hydrogen


Decomposition reaction uses heat to break down a substance

Universal indicator

Changes colour depending on pH. Red > Orange > Yellow > Green > Blue > Purple

Litmus indicator

Changes colour depending on pH. Red=Acid. Green=Neutral. Purple=Base

Hydrogen test

Collect and burn gas. POP= hydrogen is present

Carbon dioxide test

Bubble gas through limewater. Goes cloudy if carbon dioxide is present

Oxygen test

Gas will relight a glowing splint if oxygen is present.

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