Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Italian trader who traveled to China and later wrote a book. During his time in China he served as a government official in Kublai Khan's court.
great ruler of the Mongols who unified tribes and created the largest land empire in history
"Charles the Great" leader of the Franks (France); unified most of the Christian lands of Europe with the help of Pope Leo III who crowned him "Holy Roman Emperor" 800 c.e.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake
Invaders of Europe that came from the North in Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway)
Black Plague (Black Death)
A disease that engulfed Europe during the Middle Ages. It killed about one-third of the population and was carried by fleas. Because of this, the feudal system died out.
"the way of the warrior"; Japanese word for the Samurai life ; Samurai moral code was based on loyalty, chivalry, martial arts, and honor until the death
A political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
A series of holy wars by European Christians to free the Holy Land of Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
1215 document that limited the king's ability to tax English nobles and that guaranteed due process and a right to trial
Hundred Year's War
Large war between France and England that was fueled by territorial disagreements and started when Edward III declared himself king of France. In the end, it weakened both countries for some time
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
emperor of Byzantine Empire; created Legal Code; fortified city; built Hagia Sophia
one of the most powerful kings of Mali, main focus was Muslim faith, caused Timbuktu to become a major intellectual and cultural center
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Akbar the Great
Emperor of India (Mughal Empire) known for religious tolerance and for creating a strong central government.
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land
split of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church; couldn't agree on icons, role of pope, celibacy of priests
West African Kingdoms
Mali, Ghana, and Songhai are examples of these. Had a traditional economy and were successful because of the salt and gold trade.