27 terms

AP Psych Ch. 09 - Cognitive Psychology

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Cognitive Psychology
The study if the overlapping fields of perception, learning, memory, and thought, with a special emphasis on how people attend to, acquire, transform, store, and retrieve knowledge.
Concept
Mental category used to classify an event or object according to some distinguishing property or feature.
Prototype
An abstraction, an idealized pattern of an object or idea that is stored in memory and used to decide whether similar objects or ideas are members of the same class of items.
Problem Solving
The behavior of individuals when confronted with a situation or task that requires insight or determination of some unknown elements.
Algorithm
Procedure for solving a problem by implementing a set of rules over and over again until the solution is found.
Heuristics
Sets of strategies, rather than strict rules, that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.
Subgoal analysis
Heuristic procedure in which a problem is broken down into smaller steps, each of which has a subgoal.
Means-ends analysis
Heuristic procedure in which the problem solver compares the current situation with the desired goal to determine the most efficient way to get from one to the other.
Backward search
Heuristic procedure in which a problem solver works backward from the goal or end of a problem to the current position, in order to analyze the problem and reduce the steps needed to get from the current position to the goal.
Functional fixedness
Inability to see that an object can have a function other than its stated or usual one.
Creativity
A feature of thought and problem solving that includes the tendency to generate or recognize ideas considered to be high-quality, original, novel, and appropriate.
Convergent thinking
In problem solving, the process of narrowing down choices and alternatives to arrive at a suitable answer.
Divergent thinking
In problem solving, the process of widening the range of possibilities and expanding the options for solutions.
Brainstorming
Problem-solving technique that involves considering all possible solutions without making prior evaluative judgments.
Reasoning
The purposeful process by which a person generates logical and coherent ideas, evaluates situations, and reaches conclusions.
Logic
The system of principles of reasoning used to reach valid conclusions or make inferences.
Decision making
Assessing and choosing among alternatives.
Language
A system of symbols, usually words, that convey meaning and a set of rules for combining symbols to generate an infinite number of messages.
Linguistics
The study of language, including speech sounds, meaning, and grammar.
Psycholinguistics
The study of how language is acquired, perceived, understood, and produced.
Phonology
The study of the patterns and distributions of speech sounds in a language and the tacit rules for their pronunciation.
Phoneme
A basic or minimum unit of sound in a language.
Morpheme
A basic unit of meaning in a language.
Semantics
The analysis of the meaning of language, especially of individual words.
Syntax
The way words and groups of words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Grammar
The linguistic description of how a language functions, especially the rules and patterns used for generating appropriate and comprehensible sentences.
Naturalistic observation
A descriptive research method in which researchers study behavior in its natural context.
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