100 terms

S32 Vocabulary Review

Social 30-2
STUDY
PLAY
brinkmanship
Pushing the Cold War to the brink of nuclear war. During this phase it seemed that violence was guaranteed.
detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
communism
a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country. The economy is centrally planned and people are economically equal.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; the USA's military alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Yalta Conference
First conference at which the Big Three met and decided that Germany would be divided into zones and occupied by the former Allies when WWII ended.
proxy war
Wars fought by third-party countries like Vietnam, Korea or Afghanistan that were smaller stages for the overall Cold War because one side was supported and funded by the USA and the other side was supported and funded by the USSR.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
espionage
spying
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
iron curtain
a symbolic political barrier that isolated the peoples of the Soviet sphere of influence after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
expansionism
The Soviet Union's foreign policy of trying to extend communism and their ideology to neighboring countries.
containment
stopping the spread of communism
Viet Cong
North Vietnamese guerilla fighters who helped communist North Vietnam win the Vietnam war.
Korean War
Proxy war from 1950-1953 that resulted in Korea becoming divided at the 38th parallel. The north remains communist, while the south is capitalist.
totalitarianism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator and citizens have no rights and freedoms.
Party Purges
Stalin's attempt to rid Soviet Union of all opposition. All high ranking communist party members or people with different views were brutally eliminated.
Truman Doctrine
The American plan to take over funding Greece and Turkey's economies on the condition that they didn't become communist to keep them in the USA's sphere of influence and stop further communist expansionism.
North Vietnam
The communist side in the Vietnam War that ultimately won in 1975.
South Vietnam
The capitalist side in the Vietnam War that was aided by the Americans.
fascism
The ideology that promotes extreme nationalism, economic inequality, holds that people are naturally unequal and demands complete obedience to the state. Freedoms are not allowed and opposition to policies is met with brutal force.
indoctrination
brainwashing of the people of a nation. Involves teaching the younger generation in schools and youth groups that the nation's way is best, using propaganda to promote ideas and terrorizing those that speak out against it.
liberalism
ideology that holds individual rights and freedoms to be most important, believes government should be chosen democratically by the people and encourages individual achievements.
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
hippies
A group of people who protested against the Vietnam War and American involvement in it. They also wanted more individual freedoms. Active in the 1960s.
diplomacy
negotiation between nations rather than warfare to settle disputes.
market economy
an economic system based on free enterprise, in which businesses are privately owned, and production and prices are determined by supply and demand
command economy
Centrally planned economy by a communist government. The government decides what, how, how much and for whom goods and services will be produced.
liberation movements
Political struggles to achieve independence within the former Soviet Union and its satellite statesé
Glasnost
Gorbachev's policy of openness or allowing free speech.
Perestroika
Gorbachev's policy allowing a limited market economy or some private business ownership.
Great Man Theory
implies that leaders are born, not made and that they are a sort of superman, better than common people
Great Law of Peace
The constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Iroquois nations adopted this constitution as a means to live together as equals and included some democratic ideals and ideas about individual rights.
welfare capitalism
an economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of communist North Vietnam who led North Vietnam to defeat Japan, France and the US-backed South Vietnamese.
Kim Il Sung
The founder of communist North Korea who led the totalitarian state when it was founded and during the Korean War.
Kim Jon Un
current leader of North Korea
Gorbachev
Leader of the USSR in the 1980s who introduced liberal reforms to the Soviet Union which included granting free speech and introducing a limited market economy with some property ownership.
diplomacy
negotiation between nations rather than war to settle disputes
welfare capitalism
an economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
New Deal
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression that involved government spending on social welfare and job creation projects
liberal democracy
A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty and emphasizes individual freedom and civil rights.
First Past the Post
Electoral system in which the candidate in a riding with the most votes (not necessarily the majority) takes the seat in government.
proportional representation
Election system in which each party running receives the percentage of legislative seats corresponding to its percentage of the vote. The political parties are in charge of appointing representatives to the seats rather than the voters knowing who will directly represent their riding.
individualism
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence, private property and the encouragement of individual acheivements
collectivism
ideology that supports conformity and group interests, it promotes state ownership or business, collective interests and economic equality.
voter apathy
a lack of interest to vote, a "Whatever" attitude that results in low voter turnout
affirmative action
Additional opportunities given in hiring practices or university admission to a minority group that has been discriminated against in the past. The opportunity intends to correct the past problem.
civil disobedience
refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
antiwar protest
Group expression of dissent and organized demonstration expressing dissatisfaction with a country's participation in war.
privatization
selling off a government owned business to a private company. Moves the economy to the right of the spectrum.
nationalization
Government takeover of a previously private company. Moves the economy to the left of the spectrum.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Human rights laws in Canada that guarantee all Canadian citizens freedoms like speech, religion, association, assembly, democratic rights to participate in government by voting or running in elections; legal rights like a fair trial and no arbitrary arrest and right to education and services in either official language.
Quebec Charter of Human Rights
Provincial human rights legislation in Quebec.
Patriot Act
American law that allows for the suspension of regularly guaranteed rights of people suspected as potential terrorists
FLQ
Extremist separatist group from Quebec responsible for the October Crisis in which they kidnapped 2 politicians in order to get their message across to the Canadian government.
War Measures Act
Canadian law used to suspend normally guaranteed rights and freedoms in WWI, WWII and the October Crisis.
Civil Liberties
individual rights and freedoms like freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, association, peaceful assembly.
Emergencies Act
The Canadian law that can be enacted to suspend regularly guaranteed rights of Canadians. Replaced the War Measures Act.
sentencing circles
Collectivist justice based on Aboriginal cultural practices that are sometimes used in Canada to decide upon punishment for offenders accused of minor crimes. These involve the victim, offender and other Aboriginal community members.
radical
Wants total change to the social, economic or political system
reactionary
strongly opposed to change; wants to return to "good old days," extremely conservative
anarchism
a political theory favoring the abolition of governments
Industrial Revolution
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
classical liberalism
Emphasizes freedom, democracy, and the importance of the individual. An ideology that supported very little government intervention in the economy and was followed in Britain and the USA during their Industrial Revolutions. Promoted by J.S. Mill, John Locke & Adam Smith.
Marx
father cf communism who believed the working classes should violently overthrow the capitalist entrepreneurs that exploited them.
direct democracy
System of government in which citizens are allowed to participate directly by voting on issues through referenda or plebicites
pandemic
Disease that has spread around the world.
censorship
restricting access to ideas and information
labour union
An organization that advocates for workers rights in dealing with management over issues involving wages, hours, and working conditions.
Adam Smith
Suggested that an invisible hand will regulate the economy, meaning supply and demand will determine what businesses succeed. Also supported minimal government intervention in the economy or laissez faire.
self interest
what is best for YOU as an individual
collective interest
what is best for the group
belief
something someone holds to be true
competition
Encouraging and rewarding individuals for outdoing their peers in an area of society.
private property
Stuff (home, vehicle, business, possessions) owned by a citizen who bought it with the money s/he earned at work.
public property
Stuff (home, transportation, business, possessions) owned by the state or government but allowed citizens to make use of.
John Stuart Mill
Classical liberal who promoted individual rights and freedoms, democracy and even warned against a majority tyranny in the case that a political system didn't allow enough government accountability. He promoted individual freedoms fully unless they resulted in the harm of someone.
Robert Owen
British utopian socialist who believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
John Locke
This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights
nationalism
Pride/loyalty for your nation/country
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
The Enlightenment
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
Thomas Hobbes
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed (like a dictatorship) to avoid rebellion and civil war
majority government
Refers to a party in the House of Commons that forms the government with more than 50% of the seats under its control.
minority government
a government in which the ruling party has less than half the seats in the legislature
senate
upper chamber in Canada's government that is appointed rather than elected.
governor general
Canada's representative to the Queen.
FLQ
Front de la Liberation de Quebec (FLQ) A radical separatist organization of the 1960s and early 1970s which was responsible for the October Crisis of 1970.
direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. May be used sometimes in a representative democracy through recall.
government accountability
Checks and balances to ensure that the people in government do not abuse their power or waste taxpayers' money
Imposing liberalism
Forcefully making a people adopt a system of liberal democracy, e.g. in Afghanistan NATO forces waged war against the Taliban to install a democratic gov
illiberalism
A system that claims to be a liberal democracy, but is, in reality not. It's elections may not be free and fair, rights might be violated commonly, etc.
feminism
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
internment
Suspension of rights and imprisonment in labour camps. Happened to Ukrainian-Canadians in WWI and Japanese Canadians in WWII, as they were considered a potential threat as 'enemy aliens' under the War Measures Act.
neoconservatism
Were supporters of Ronald Regan. They promote free-market capitalism liberated from government restraints. They questioned welfare programs and affirmative action policies. They encouraged traditional values and promoted free market economics and free trade.
classical liberalism
a term given to the philosophy of John Locke and other 17th and 18th century advocates of the protection of individual rights and liberties by limiting government power.
cabinet
Ministers in government who propose bills and have key policy positions, e.g. Minister of Finance. They are elected MPs who receive a bonus responsibility and pay as a result of their cabinet post. Almost always from the government party.
bill
proposed law
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