How can we help?
You can also find more resources in our
Select a category
Something is confusing
Something is broken
I have a suggestion
What is your email?
What is 1 + 3?
NCEA Level 3 Biology: Molecular Genetics
(biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
One of the four aromatic bases found in DNA and RNA. Cytosine is a pyrimidine; it pairs with guanine.
Pentose sugar in Nucleotide
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
the complete genetic material contained in an individual
One of the four aromatic bases found in DNA and RNA. Guanine is a purine; it pairs with cytosine.
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
A chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
sugar used in RNA to make up the "backbone"
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes, which determine an individual's gender
of the body
nitrogen base found ONLY in DNA that pairs with adenine
The RNA version of thymine. Like thymine, this base also pairs with adenine.
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
RNA binds to this strand of DNA & copies it
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Complimentary Base Pairs
the sequence of the strand on one strand determinesthe sequence of bases on the other strand
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
a genetic code in which some amino acids may be encoded by more than one codon each.
The S-S linkage, i.e. between two sulfur atoms, that forms during the cross-linking of amino acids during protein synthesis.
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
an agent capable of activating specific genes
a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
The strand in replication that is copied 3' to 5' as Okazaki fragments and then joined up.
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
Series of progressive chemical reaction steps involving energy production or conversion.
The chromosomes move to the center of the cell.
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
A short segment of DNA synthesized on a template strand during DNA replication. Many Okazaki fragments make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA.
The site that a repressor protein can bind to to prevent transcription
a group of genes that operate together
having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei
part of DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that make up a gene begin
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine
nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as cytosine and thymine
a genetic unit that regulates or suppresses the activity of one or more structural genes
a Y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
a gene that codes for a product, such as an enzyme, protein, or RNA, rather than serving as a regulator
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes.
unit, a region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
The three nucleotides of DNA which code for one amino acid
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome