CCRI Microbiology Exam 2 Study Set

All of the following are eukaryotic cell examples except
a. protozoa
b. human cell
c. bacteria
d. yeast
e. algae
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Terms in this set (56)
The porin protein of the gram-negative bacteria a. is the space between the wall membrane and the plasma membrane b. is part of the flagella c. makes up the structure of the flagella d. regulates molecular traffic into and out of the wall membraned. regulates molecular traffic into and out of the wall membraneA sticky, gelatinous layer surrounding the bacterial cell wall in some bacteria is called the a. glycocalyx b. endospore c. fimbriae d. flagelluma. glycocalyxChromatin becomes which of the below during mitosis? a. metachromatic granules b. ribosomes c. chromosomes d. nuclear poresc. chromosomesA type of locomotion in flagellated bacteria is called a. bait and switch b. rock and roll c. bend and stretch d. stop and go e. run and tumblee. run and tumbleDiplococci refers to a. cocci in pairs b. a cuboidal packet of eight cells c. groups of endopsores d. rods in pairs e. vibros in pairsa. cocci in pairsLysozyme can destroy cells walls by a. hydrolyzing peptidoglycan in cell walls b. inhibiting protein synthesis c. removing flagella d. dissolving the cell membrane e. removing the capsule from the cella. hydrolyzing peptidoglycan in cell wallsLife on Earth is thought to have formed about a. 10 billion years ago b. 3.6 billion years ago c. 1.5 billion years ago d. 1.0 billion years agob. 3.6 billion years agoThe term that refers to the presence of flagella all over the cell surface is a. amphitrichous b. atrichous c. lophotrichous d. peritrichousd. peritrichousWhich structure helps protect bacteria from being phagocytized? a. endospores b. plasmids c. ribosomes d. capsulesd. capsulesPeptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial a. cell walls b. cell membranes c. capsules d. plasmidsa. cell wallsCarbolic acid (phenol) was introduced as the first a. vaccine b. sulfa drug c. chemotherapy drug d. disinfectant e. differential mediadisinfectant - ListerStaphylococci refers to a. cocci in pairs b. large clusters of round bacteria c. groups of endopsores d. cocci in linear formation e. vibros pairsb. large clusters of round bacteriaProtein icebergs floating in a lipid sea is best illustrated by the a. movement of flagella b. movement of cytoplasm within a cell c. movement of proteins in the phospholipid bilayer d. transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another via the sex pilusc. movement of proteins in the phospholipid bilayerThis organelle has its own DNA, ribosomes, and divides by binary fission. This organelle is the a. mitochondrion b. rough ER c. Golgi structure d. lysosomea. mitochondrionFreeze-fracture freeze-etch is a technique that was used to better understand the a. nucleus b. cell membrane c. cell wall d. endosporeb. cell membraneearth4.6 billionprokaryotic cell walls containcontaining peptidoglycan or pseudomureincoccuscoccobacillusvibrobacillusspirillumspirocheteFimbriae - common to what?Common to gram negative bacteria 2. Bristlelike and used for adherence 4. Shorter, straighter, thinner than flagella 5. Composed of curlin proteins that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteriaSex Pili1. Rigid tubular structure composed of pilin 2. Used for conjugation in gram negative bacteriaGram-Positive Cell WallThick, strong cell wall composed of many layers of peptidoglycan 2. Teichoic acid makes the cell wall negatively charged a. lipoteichoic acid- spans the petidoglycan layers and anchored to the plasma membrane b. wall teichoic acid- linked to peptidoglycan layersGram Negative Cell Wall1. Composed of one or few layers of peptidoglycan 2. Cannot handle mechanical stress as well as the Gram positive cell wall 3. Contains a wall membrane 4. Lipoproteins of cell wall membrane link to peptidoglycan in the periplasm 5. The periplasm is a liquid-filled space with digestive enzymes and transport proteinsMycoplasmaAtypical Cell Walls -pleomorphic- no cell wall -smallest bacteria reproducing outside host cellAcid fast cell wallmembers of the genus Mycobacterium have an abundance of mycolic acid in their cell walls which makes them waxy and resistant to desiccationTransport Across the Membrane1. Simple diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. SolutionsActive Transport-transport against a concentration gradient -requires energy -proton pumpCytosolComplex mixture of substances dissolved in water 2. Water forms the large majority of the cytosol 3. The concentrations of ions such as sodium and potassium are different in the cytosol than in the extracellular fluid; these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation and cell signaling 4. The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular crowding 5. Cytoplasmic streaming absentPlasmids-extra pieces of DNA found in some bacteria -physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cellEndospores1. Non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum 2. Endospore formation is usually triggered by a lack of nutrients 3. Endospores enable bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods 4. They are resistant to ultraviolet radiation, desiccation, high temperature, extreme freezing and chemical disinfectantsBinary fissionEukaryotic Cell. Features of the eukaryotic cells -1.5 billion years old -have nuclei and organelles -displays a high degree of compartmentalizationNucleosome'bead' DNA spools aroundFluid Mosaic Model -who?S. J. Singer & Garth NicholsonCytosol1. Thick gel-like substance made up of eighty percent water and is usually clear and colorless 2. Displays cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming)Mitochondria1. Site of true respiration 2. Structural features -outer membrane -inner membrane -cristae -matrixChloroplasts1. Site of photosynthesis 2. Contains chlorophyll, xanthophylls, and carotenoids 3. Structural features outer membrane inner membrane internal membrane granum thylakoid stromaFungi1. Unicellular, filamentous and multicellular 2. Eukaryotic -complex in structure -membrane-bound nucleus -membrane-bound organelle 3. Includes the molds, yeast, mushrooms 4. Cell wall composed of chitin 5. No true tissue 6. Reproduce by spores 7. Nutrition by absorptionAlgae1. Unicellular, colonial, filamentous and multicellular 2. Composed of eukaryotic cells 3. Cell wall composed of cellulose or silicon dioxide 4. Compose phytoplankton 5. Nutrition by photosynthesisProtozoa1. Unicellular 2. Composed of eukaryotic cells 3. Animal-like 4. No cell wall 5. Nutrition by ingestionHelminths1. Multcellular 2. Eukaryotic 3. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms 4. Nutrition by parasitism by feeding off living hostsViruses1. Acellular 2. Smaller than bacteria 3. Obligate intracellular parasites 4. Outside of the living cells, viruses cannot move, grow or reproduce 5. Inside the cell they can reproduce themselves

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