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DNA Structure and Function (Chps. 12 and 13)
Terms in this set (47)
modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of genetic material (DNA). Can change harmless bacteria into disease - causing form.
A virus that infects bacteria
DNA. A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
The building blocks of DNA and RNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
A five-carbon sugar found in DNA.
A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms. major component of nucleotides.
The chemicals that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder and store genetic information.
The rule that Adenine bonds to Thymine and Cytosine bonds to Guanine in DNA
Very weak bond created by the attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule. Hold the 2 strands of
A shape like a coiled spring, used to describe the structue of DNA molecules.
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.
The concept that the 2 strands of a DNA molecule are opposite in terms of Base pairing A-T and C-G.
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of free nucleotides to the existing chain.
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
5' to 3'
The Direction that DNA or RNA always forms new polymers
Strand of a DNA molecule during DNA replication; replication is continuous without Okazaki fragments.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork. produces Okazaki fragments
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.
DNA at the tips of chromosomes. particularly difficult to replicate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic reproductive cells. this enzyme is turned off in adult cells.
(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose. There are 3 main types.
A five-carbon sugar present in RNA.
A nitrogen base found only in RNA. Takes the place of Thymine (T) and Bonds to Adenine (A).
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A single-stranded RNA molecule that carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein (translation).
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
important component of ribosomes. involved in the process of translation.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
The process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription, using a DNA strand as a template.
DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription.
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
Set of rules that determine how a nucleotide sequence is converted into the amino acid sequence of a protein.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid; the basic unit of the genetic code.
AUG; the codon that begins all RNA molecules. Codes for Methionine.
Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
The process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
chain of many amino acids linked together. Helps form proteins.
Building blocks of protein
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon.
DNA -> RNA -> Protein.
The process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function. Genes are transcribed into mRNA which are translated into proteins, and those proteins carry out a function with in the cell
heritable changes in genetic information (DNA).
A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair.
Change to a gene or chromosome in which a fragment is removed.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Chp. 18 Classification
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