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AP Psych Mod. 9-15
Terms in this set (95)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
cell body of a neuron with a nucleus
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron (gap between neurons)
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system. Controls voluntary motor movement.
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
A neurotransmitter released in the body in times of stress or danger to mobilize the brain and body to take action in coordination with adrenaline.
A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
a widely distributed amino acid transmitter, and the main inhibitory transmitter in the mammalian nervous system
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response, mimics a neurotransmitter
blocks neurotransmitter from signal.
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system. Carry messages sent throughout body.
sensory (affrent) neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Motor (effrent) Neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
learning by watching others
learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord. Connected to sensory and motor neurons of the peripheral nervous system.
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Connection to spinal cord. Filters information flow between peripheral nervous system and the rest of the brain.
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
above medulla, helps coordinate movements, automatic functions, and sleep.
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal and pattern behaviors
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulates the ejection of milk into the ducts of the breasts.
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
the formation of new neurons
controls the right side of the body; analytical, language, math
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
controls the left side of the body; creative, intuitive, spacial
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
the body's slow chemical communication system, uses the release of hormones to communicate
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
A glad just above the kidney released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness.
stimulates chemical reactions important for all tissue p
helps with growth of muscles and male traits produces by testes
A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. produce by ovaries
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
natural selection (dating)
traits good for survival
when individuals select mates based on heritable traits
Nature vs. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they are expressed
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
study of hereditary influences and how it influences behavior and thinking
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
culture in which the individual is valued more highly than the group
this adjective describes cultures in which the individual is less important than the group
self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
our sense of being male or female
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
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