the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health related behaviors in a given population
the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time
the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at a given point in time.
the number of new cases that occur over a given period of time
described the presence of two or more disorders in the same person.
What are the 6 elements of abnormality?
Deviancy, Suffering, Maladaptiveness, Violation of the standards of society, Social discomfort, irrationality or unpredictability (DSMVSI)
What's the DSM-IV definition of a Mental Disorder?
A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that's associated with distress or disability, reflects behavioral, psycholgical, or biological dysfunction in the individual.
How did Wakefield define a mental disorder?
As harmful mental dysfunction. It causes distress or disability, not an expected response to an event, is a manifestation of harmful mental disfunction.
What are some issues with classifying mental disorders?
stereotyping, stigma, labeling, loss of information, and over-generalization
Cultural factors influence the presentation of disorders found all over the globe. What's an example of this?
Depressed asians tend to present depressive symptoms in terms of physical pain, not emotional pain like in the west.
a Japanese anxiety disorder marked by fear that one's body or body parts is offending others
refers to anyone who suffered from a disorder at any time throughout a given year
the percentage of people who have ever suffered from the disorder in their lifetime
Almost half of the population has had a mental disorder at some point in their life
true story bro
Most prevalent cateogry of disorders
Stone age trephining
chipping away of the circular section of the skull
What did Hippocrates' early medical concepts include?
Categorizing disorders as mania, melancholia, or phrenitis. Associating dreams and personality to each other, the role of heredity and predispositions. Very advanced for his time, reccomended diet, exercise, and lowering stress levels.
Did Hippocrates think medical disorders were spiritually or naturally caused?
associated the excess of fluid in the body with the cause of a specific issue
What did Plato's early medical concepts include?
He emphasized individual differences, viewed psychological phenomena as responses to the whole organism, hospital care for treatment.
What were the Egyptian's therapeutic measures?
low stress, social support, exercise, and education
What was Galen's significance?
he provided the anatomy of the nervous system. also, how different areas of the brain control different functions.
What was the key to Roman medicine?
What's Contrariis Contrarius and who used it?
Doing two opposing things to the body. Ex: drink cold glass of wine while in a hot bath. Rory the Roman
Where was the first mental hospital?
What was the significance of Paracelsus (16th Century)
he rejected demonology
What was the significance of Johann Weyer?
She believed in the existence of mental disorders
In the 16th century it was mainly asylums
like in Sweeney Todd
What did Pinel (in US) and Tuke (in England) do?
treated mental patients with kindness in the 18th century
What did Benjamin Rush, the psychiatrist, do in America?
He pushed therapy with religious teachings, and focused n retreats in the mountains and the countryside
What was the main thing Dorothea Dix did?
She started a campaign that focused on the inhumane treatment of mental patients
What movement did Pinel, Tuke, Rush, and Dix start and what was it?
the hygiene movement. If focused on moral and spiritual development. Also, mental issues, rather than physical issues were the focus.
Mary Jane Ward did what?
Wrote the book The Snake Pit that called attention to the plight of mental patients
a condition that must exist for a disorder to occur
if cause b is there, then disorder a will occur ex: hopelessness causes depression
if x occurs then the probability of the disorder will be more likely to occur ex: parental rejection leading to issues later in life
distal causal factor
happened in past
proximal causal factor
reinforcing contributory cause
if being depressed and people take care of you, there's no motivation to not be a useless lump. Pleasent experiences may unintentionally hinder recovery
more than one cause
predisposition towards developing a disorder. Can be bio psycho or social
influences that modify a person's response to environmental stressors making it less likely to be f****ed up. Ex: living in the ghetto but grandmama taught you right, you won't do crack
identical twins, parents killed when year old, mother had preexisting depression, were adopted to different families, both had different responses in future because of different parenting techniques
focuses on determining what is abnormal, look for what you're supposed to be like. Determine what is normal by comparison to normal people
3 viewpoints fr understanding abnormal behavior
biological, psych, sociological
Biological factor 4 categories:
neural transmittal and hormonal abnormalities (bipolar), genetic vulnerability (if your mom schizofrenic you may be schizo), temperament, brain dysfunction (mom drinks when preggo with you, hard time learning in class).
Dealing with stress:
hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, cortisol
influenced by multiple genes ex: left handed not dominant or recessive, affected by multiple genes
genotype's passive effect
ex: if you have smart parents and they give you opportunities, your smartness may come out more
genotype's evocative effect
child's genotype may evoke particular kinds of reactions from the social and physical environment ex: happy babies make people happy. musically talented kids get put in music schools
genotype environment interaction
people are different
focuses on heritability of mental disorders
the percentage of twins sharing a certain trait
look at a gene and know which chromosome causes what. they look for the schizophrenic gene
developmental system approach
our environment influences our behavior which affects our neural activity can influence genetic activity. bidirectional
the son wants to screw the mom, but he's scared because his dad might cut off his penis.
the idea that psychopathology develops when your ego cant suppress or control your desire
share focus on individual's interactions with real and impaged other people and on the relationships that people experience between the two.
take a mental picture of friend, real or imaginary and you'll keep it
people are social and want to belong and be included
Attachment theory (Bowlby)
emphasizes the importance of early experience especially attachment because it lays the foundation for interactions in adulthood.
humans are innately good present consciousness
The existential perspective
uniqueness of each individual, meaning and freedom for self direction.
The behavioral perspective
focus on the behavioral rather than scientific theories. Only study observable behavior
stimulus elicits response. Dog will salivate when bell rings
operant (instrumental) conditioning
an individual learns how to achieve a desired goal. Dog sitting and getting food. reinforcement is key
Cognitive behavioral perspective
focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to bad emotions or behaviors
views on what we are
if we think that all gays carry knives, and we meet gays that don't carry knives. We think most gays carry knives but some don't.
changing our existing frameworks to make it possible to incorporate new information that doesn't fit a current schema
Beck did what?
pioneered theories about depression and anxiety disorder
every time you take the stairs and you don't die, it reinforces fear of elevator
Authoritative parenting style
best parenting style, warm, loving, moderate control, if you break rules there's punishment
bad! like military, no warmth, lots of control. Children tend to be irritable, moody, poor social skills
permissive/indulgent parenting style
low control and discipline, high love. Spoiled children agressive and impulsive
low on warmth and control. moody, low self-esteem, peer relation issues, academic issues.