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the causes of mental disorders




the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health related behaviors in a given population


the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time

Point prevalence

the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at a given point in time.


the number of new cases that occur over a given period of time


described the presence of two or more disorders in the same person.

What are the 6 elements of abnormality?

Deviancy, Suffering, Maladaptiveness, Violation of the standards of society, Social discomfort, irrationality or unpredictability (DSMVSI)

What's the DSM-IV definition of a Mental Disorder?

A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that's associated with distress or disability, reflects behavioral, psycholgical, or biological dysfunction in the individual.

How did Wakefield define a mental disorder?

As harmful mental dysfunction. It causes distress or disability, not an expected response to an event, is a manifestation of harmful mental disfunction.

What are some issues with classifying mental disorders?

stereotyping, stigma, labeling, loss of information, and over-generalization

Cultural factors influence the presentation of disorders found all over the globe. What's an example of this?

Depressed asians tend to present depressive symptoms in terms of physical pain, not emotional pain like in the west.

Taijin fyokusho

a Japanese anxiety disorder marked by fear that one's body or body parts is offending others

One-Year Prevalence

refers to anyone who suffered from a disorder at any time throughout a given year

Lifetime prevalence

the percentage of people who have ever suffered from the disorder in their lifetime

Almost half of the population has had a mental disorder at some point in their life

true story bro

Most prevalent cateogry of disorders


Stone age trephining

chipping away of the circular section of the skull

What did Hippocrates' early medical concepts include?

Categorizing disorders as mania, melancholia, or phrenitis. Associating dreams and personality to each other, the role of heredity and predispositions. Very advanced for his time, reccomended diet, exercise, and lowering stress levels.

Did Hippocrates think medical disorders were spiritually or naturally caused?

naturally caused


associated the excess of fluid in the body with the cause of a specific issue

What did Plato's early medical concepts include?

He emphasized individual differences, viewed psychological phenomena as responses to the whole organism, hospital care for treatment.

What were the Egyptian's therapeutic measures?

low stress, social support, exercise, and education

What was Galen's significance?

he provided the anatomy of the nervous system. also, how different areas of the brain control different functions.

What was the key to Roman medicine?


What's Contrariis Contrarius and who used it?

Doing two opposing things to the body. Ex: drink cold glass of wine while in a hot bath. Rory the Roman

Where was the first mental hospital?


What was the significance of Paracelsus (16th Century)

he rejected demonology

What was the significance of Johann Weyer?

She believed in the existence of mental disorders

In the 16th century it was mainly asylums

like in Sweeney Todd

What did Pinel (in US) and Tuke (in England) do?

treated mental patients with kindness in the 18th century

What did Benjamin Rush, the psychiatrist, do in America?

He pushed therapy with religious teachings, and focused n retreats in the mountains and the countryside

What was the main thing Dorothea Dix did?

She started a campaign that focused on the inhumane treatment of mental patients

What movement did Pinel, Tuke, Rush, and Dix start and what was it?

the hygiene movement. If focused on moral and spiritual development. Also, mental issues, rather than physical issues were the focus.

Mary Jane Ward did what?

Wrote the book The Snake Pit that called attention to the plight of mental patients

necessary cause

a condition that must exist for a disorder to occur

sufficient cause

if cause b is there, then disorder a will occur
ex: hopelessness causes depression

contributory cause

if x occurs then the probability of the disorder will be more likely to occur
ex: parental rejection leading to issues later in life

distal causal factor

happened in past

proximal causal factor

happened recently

reinforcing contributory cause

if being depressed and people take care of you, there's no motivation to not be a useless lump. Pleasent experiences may unintentionally hinder recovery

causal pattern

more than one cause


predisposition towards developing a disorder. Can be bio psycho or social

protective factors

influences that modify a person's response to environmental stressors making it less likely to be f****ed up. Ex: living in the ghetto but grandmama taught you right, you won't do crack

Case study:

identical twins, parents killed when year old, mother had preexisting depression, were adopted to different families, both had different responses in future because of different parenting techniques

developmental psychopathology

focuses on determining what is abnormal, look for what you're supposed to be like. Determine what is normal by comparison to normal people

3 viewpoints fr understanding abnormal behavior

biological, psych, sociological

Biological factor 4 categories:

neural transmittal and hormonal abnormalities (bipolar), genetic vulnerability (if your mom schizofrenic you may be schizo), temperament, brain dysfunction (mom drinks when preggo with you, hard time learning in class).

Dealing with stress:

hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, cortisol


influenced by multiple genes ex: left handed not dominant or recessive, affected by multiple genes

genotype's passive effect

ex: if you have smart parents and they give you opportunities, your smartness may come out more

genotype's evocative effect

child's genotype may evoke particular kinds of reactions from the social and physical environment ex: happy babies make people happy. musically talented kids get put in music schools

genotype environment interaction

people are different

behavior genetics

focuses on heritability of mental disorders

concordance rate

the percentage of twins sharing a certain trait

linkage analysis

look at a gene and know which chromosome causes what. they look for the schizophrenic gene

developmental system approach

our environment influences our behavior which affects our neural activity can influence genetic activity. bidirectional

castration anxiety

the son wants to screw the mom, but he's scared because his dad might cut off his penis.


the idea that psychopathology develops when your ego cant suppress or control your desire

object-relations theory

share focus on individual's interactions with real and impaged other people and on the relationships that people experience between the two.


take a mental picture of friend, real or imaginary and you'll keep it

Interpersonal perspective

people are social and want to belong and be included

Attachment theory (Bowlby)

emphasizes the importance of early experience especially attachment because it lays the foundation for interactions in adulthood.

Humanistic perspective

humans are innately good present consciousness

The existential perspective

uniqueness of each individual, meaning and freedom for self direction.

The behavioral perspective

focus on the behavioral rather than scientific theories. Only study observable behavior

classical conditioning

stimulus elicits response. Dog will salivate when bell rings

operant (instrumental) conditioning

an individual learns how to achieve a desired goal. Dog sitting and getting food. reinforcement is key

Cognitive behavioral perspective

focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to bad emotions or behaviors


views on what we are


if we think that all gays carry knives, and we meet gays that don't carry knives. We think most gays carry knives but some don't.


changing our existing frameworks to make it possible to incorporate new information that doesn't fit a current schema

Beck did what?

pioneered theories about depression and anxiety disorder

attribution theory

every time you take the stairs and you don't die, it reinforces fear of elevator

Authoritative parenting style

best parenting style, warm, loving, moderate control, if you break rules there's punishment


bad! like military, no warmth, lots of control. Children tend to be irritable, moody, poor social skills

permissive/indulgent parenting style

low control and discipline, high love. Spoiled children agressive and impulsive

Neglectful/uninvolved parents

low on warmth and control. moody, low self-esteem, peer relation issues, academic issues.

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