108 terms

Midterm Review

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John Locke
An Enlightenment philosopher that believed in natural rights (life, liberty and property). He also believed that the purpose of government was to protect people's natural rights and if the government didn't do so, people had the right to rebel.
Natural Rights
Rights that belong to every individual person and cannot be taken away. John Locke believed individuals had three natural rights: life, liberty, and property.
Baron Montesquieu
A philosopher during the Enlightenment who believed in separation of powers and checks and balances in the government.
Separation of Powers
The idea that power in government should be divided into separate branches in order to ensure that no one branch of a governing body can gain too much authority. (Example: In the US, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial.)
Voltaire
a french philosopher during the Enlightenment who supported freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of press. He also believed in monarchy (as long as it was fair/just).
Hispaniola
An island in the Caribbean that contains both modern day Haiti and the Dominican Republic. (This is the name given to the island by Christopher Columbus.)
Slavery
A system where people of one group (in this case, race) treat another as their property, and force them into hard labor and punishment.
Tainos
The original inhabitants of the island of Ayti (Haiti). They lived in villages governed by chiefs.
Affranchis
In Saint-Domingue: free people of color who were often wealthy and well-educated. Attempted to distance themselves from the enslaved population.
Maroon
fugitive (runaway) slaves
French Colonists
With regard to Saint-Domingue/the Haitian Revolution: These individuals were French people who owned land, grower crops, the made decent money, and were at the top of social pyramid. Also they owned slaves.
Voodoo
Haitian version of traditional African religious beliefs that are blended with elements of Christianity.
Black Codes
In Saint-Domingue: declared slaves property of their masters, but put some regulations in place to protect the slave population from overly harsh treatment.
Toussaint Louverture
He was a rebel leader that was a skilled strategist. In 1801, he wrote a constitution that abolished slavery in Saint Domingue (1801). Later, he was arrested by the French and died in prison.
Dutty Boukman
A voodoo priest who organized the slave revolt that sparked (started) the Haitian Revolution
Jean Jacques Dessalines
One of Louverture's top generals. He united the rebel forces after Louverture's death. He became emperor of a free Haiti at the end of the Revolution.
Scorched Earth Policy
A military strategy, which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area.
Saint-Domingue
French controlled portion of Hispaniola
Santo Domingo
Spanish controlled portion of Hispaniola.
Old Regime
The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution. (There was a king/queen and 3 Estates in this system.)
Three Estates
the three social classes in France before the French Revolution. The First Estate consisting of clergy; the Second Estate, of nobility; and the Third Estate, the rest of the population.
Bourgeoisie
Well-educated members of the Third Estate. Often very wealthy.
Louis XVI
King of France before and during the early stages of the French Revolution. Was a poor leader.
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France before and during the early stages of the French Revolution. People did not like her because she was Austrian and spent a lot of money.
Estates-General
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France. (When a meeting was called by the King in 1789, it was the first time the assembly had met in over a 175 years!)
National Assembly
A French Congress established by representatives of the Third Estate in 1789 to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
Great Fear
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by France's National Assembly in 1789. This document laid out some of the basic rights of the French people and was used as a preamble to the new Constitution.
Maximilien Robespierre
He ruled France during Reign of Terror. Was virtually a dictator. Many people were killed.
Committee of Public Safety
A committee established during the French Revolution to identify "enemies of the republic"
Reign of Terror
A period from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Guillotine
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Napoleon
A leading French general who later became emperor of France. He accomplished many things during his time as leader: the creation of lycees, the creation of the Napoleonic Code, the Concordat, and many battlefield successes.
Blockade
Preventing goods, people, & communication from entering or leaving an area or country. (Often used during wartime)
Coup d'etat
A sudden, and often illegal, seizure of political power in a nation
Plebiscite
A vote of the people (in which they have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal)
Concordat
In general: a formal agreement, especially one between the pope and a government dealing with Church affairs.

In this context: An agreement between Napoleon and the Church. Napoleon made Catholicism the religion of the majority in France and the Church gave up claims to land taken during the Revolution.
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive an uniform code of laws established for France by Napoleon
Lycees
Government run school, often run along military lines
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian statesman. Architect of the Congress of Vienna.
Congress of Vienna
A series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.

Key Outcomes

•Legitimacy - returned the monarchs that Napoleon overthrew to power


•Returned land Napoleon took over to its original owners

•Made an alliance system to balance the power of Europe & weaken France
Balance of Power
A political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.
Nationalism
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation-that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history-rather than to a king or an empire
Nation-state
when a nation-a group of people with a common culture, history, language, etc.-have their own independent government.
Ottoman Empire
large empire that, at its height, spanned parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Ruled by the Ottoman Turks. 1299-1923.

*Many nations in the Balkans (such as Greece) wanted to break away from the Ottoman Empire & create their own nation-states.
Otto von Bismarck
conservative Junker; Prime Minister of Prussia; master of realpolitik; architect of German unification
Realpolitik
"the politics of reality"--the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism; very Machiavellian--"the end justifies the means"

Examples: Bismarck manipulated the Schleswig and Holstein question, antagonized other countries/provoked wars to achieve his goals
Giuseppe Garibaldi
leader in southern Italy during unification who raised an army of thousands called the Red Shirts; With the permission of the people, Garibaldi united the southern areas he conquered with the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia. (The Sardinian King-Victor Emmanuel II-ruled these areas.)
Camillo di Cavour
Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia; architect of Italian Unification. (Considered the "brains" of Italian unification.)
Agricultural Revolution
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
Industrialization
The development of industries for the machine production of goods
Factors of Production
The resources-including land, labor, and capital-that are needed to produce goods and services
Urbanization
The growth of cities and the migration (movement) of people into them
Middle Class
During the Industrial Revolution: A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople and wealthy farmers. They were neither super rich nor dirt poor. These individuals were able to buy goods produced in factories
Cottage Industry
A manufacturing method where people make goods out of their home, using hand tools & simple machines
Laissez-Faire
The idea that the government should not interfere with or regulate industries/business.
Adam Smith
"father of capitalism," wrote "The Wealth of Nations," believed in laissez-faire
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
Utilitarianism
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Businesses, people, and workers should be judged by their utility or their usefulness.
Socialism
A system of production where the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
Communism
An economic system in which all means of production-land, mines, factories, railroads, businesses, etc. - are owned by the people. Private property does not exist and all goods and services are shared equally. (Karl Marx)
Karl Marx
Wrote The Communist Manifesto, believed in Communism
Unions
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
Strike
To refuse to work in order to force an employer to meet certain demand
Collective Bargaining
When people negotiate as a group with their employer
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
Colony
A country or a region governed internally by a foreign power. Example: the French in Saint-Domingue (Haiti)
Social Darwinism
A version of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution that the most fit of the societies/races will survive and dominate.
Racism
The belief that one race is superior (better than) another.
Maxim Gun
Precursor to modern day machine gun created by a British inventor.
Quinine
an anti-malarial drug that allowed Europeans to travel further into the African interior.
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa. The conference was an attempt to prevent potential conflicts between European countries.
Opium War
A conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China. The results of the conflict indicated that China was not strong enough to resist Western demands.
Congo
a country in Central Africa, became a colony of the Belgians in 1800s. Belgian imperialism had a many negative long term effects on the Congo.
Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty that ended the Opium War. Gave Britain Hong Kong. Paved the way for other treaties that would force China to trade.
Extraterritorial Rights
An exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country
Spheres of Influence
An area where another nation has exclusive investment or trading privileges.
Open Door Policy
A policy, proposed by the US in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. This policy was designed to protect US trading interests in China.
Treaty of Kanagawa
An 1854 agreement between the US and Japan, which opened two Japanese ports to US ships and allowed the US to set up an embassy in Japan
Meiji Era
A period of Japanese history from 1867 to 1912, during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito. A major goal of the the government at this time was to establish Japan as an industrial power. The modernization of Japan during this time resulted in the rise of Japan as an imperialistic nation.
Mutsuhito
Emperor of Japan from 1867-1912, responsible for modernizing Japan
Russo-Japanese War
A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea.
Mahatma Gandhi
an Indian lawyer who led the nationalist movement to help India become free of British control through non-violent protest (civil disobedience).
Raj
The British controlled portions of India in the years 1757-1947
Pakistan
A Muslim republic established in 1947 as a result of the partition of India. There is still tension between India and Pakistan today.
Sepoy Mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India.

(Further information: Many sepoys, Indian soldiers in the British East India Company, refused to bite off their cartridges because they believed they were filled with beef and pork. The British arrested any sepoys who refused to bite the cartridges leading to rebellion throughout the country.)
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms.

India specific: It is the most popular/common religion in India. Many Hindus has conflicts with Muslims.
Islam
a monotheistic religion that developed in Arabia in the seventh century AD. Based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed. Followers are called Muslims.

India specific: A minority religion in India that had many conflicts with the Hindus.
Allies
During WWI, the nations of France, Britain, Russia, the US, Japan, and the other nations that fought on their side.
Triple Entente
Pre-war (WWI) alliance between Britain, France, and Russia
Zimmerman Note (Telegram)
A message from Germany to Mexico which stated that Germany would help reconquer land it had lost to the US if Mexico would ally itself with Germany
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The use of submarines to sink without warning any ship (including neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in an enemy's waters
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Ruler of Germany during WWI
Western Front
The region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other
Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria. His assassination in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip (member of the Black Hand) sparked the start of WWI.
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's military plan at the outbreak of WWI, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move East to attack Russia
Alliance(s)
A union or association formed for mutual benefit (Long term cause of WWI. Remember: MAIN)
Trench Warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battle field
Militarism
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war (Long term cause of WWI. Remember: MAIN)
Triple Alliance
Pre-war (WWI) alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Black Hand
Revolutionary group whose goal was to unite Bosnia with Serbia
Central Powers
During WWI, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire and the other nations that fought on their side.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the US during WWI
Eastern Front
The region along the German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks