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Terms in this set (95)
To make (-poiesis) blood (heme-)
Where does hematopoiesis begin?
In the bone marrow
Where are the most common sites to collect bone marrow in dogs?
Proximal femur, iliac crest and proximal humerus
Where are the most common sites to collect bone marrow in cattle & horses?
Ribs and sternum
Where does hematopoiesis occur in mammals?
Extravascular (outside the vascular space)
Where does hematopoiesis occur in non-mammals?
Intravascular (inside the venous sinuses)
Production of red blood cells
What is the first committed cell in erythropoiesis?
An erythroid progenitor
What percent of red blood cell mass is replaced daily?
How many divisions does it take to get from erythroid progenitor cell to mature RBC?
What animal does not release reticulocytes into circulation under any circumstances?
What animal releases reticulocytes only in response to anemia?
What does lack of iron cause?
It inhibits hemoglobin formation allowing extra divisions causing smaller erythrocytes (microcytosis).
What does a metarubricyte do during the process of erythrocyte maturation?
Extrudes its nucleus to become a polychromatophilic cell/reticulocyte
What are the two types of reticulocytes?
aggregate and punctate
What does aggregate reticulocytes look like and indicate?
Large basophilic aggregates that indicate current, active erythropoiesis.
What does punctate reticulocytes look like and indicate?
Small dot-like inclusions (older reticulocytes), indicates past regeneration.
What species are punctate reticulocytes relevant in?
What does it mean if you see both aggregate and punctate reticulocytes in a cat?
Active with evidence of chonicity
What does it mean if you only see punctate reticulocytes in a cat?
That it was regenerative in the past, but is no longer producing young erythrocytes.
What factors promote RBC production?
Erythropoietin (primary hematopoietic growth factor).
Other cytokines including interleukins (IL-3), stem cell factor, colony stimulating factors, and various hormones.
Where is erythropoietin primarily produced?
In the kidneys
What factors inhibit RBC production?
Factors associated with inflammation (IL-1, TNF-a, TGF-b, interferons).
What is the most common anemia seen in our patients?
Mild anemia associated with inflammatory disease.
Production of platelets
What is the primary regulator of thrombopoiesis?
What are platelets essential for?
Formation of a stable blood clot
Are platelets cells?
No, they are small cytoplasmic fragments shed by the megakaryocyte into the venous sinusoids.
What is a megakaryocyte?
The largest cell in bone marrow with a lobulated, polyploid nucleus.
Do megakaryocytes divide?
Where is thrombopoietin produced?
Liver and kidneys
Serum thrombopoietin is _____________ proportional to platelet and platelet precursor mass.
Low platelet count
When is thrombopoietin highest in patients?
Patient's with megakaryocytic hypoplasia.
What does it mean to have megakaryocytic hypoplasia?
Low circulating platelets and low numbers of precursors in the bone marrow
When is thrombopoietin intermediate in patients?
Patient's with consumption or destruction of platelets
Production of granulocytes (leukocytes)
What is the first committed cell in granulopoiesis?
What is the primary function for cells within granulopoiesis?
Participation in inflammation and innate immune response.
What cells are included in granulopoiesis?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What is the function and appearance of a neutrophil?
Function: phagocytosis and microbicidal activity
Appearance: granules do no stain well, so they are neutral to stain
What is the function of a/n eosinophil/basophils?
Parasiticidal activity, participation in allergic reactions
What is the appearance of an eosinophil?
Granules stain with eosin, so they look pink.
What is the appearance of a basophil?
Granules stain with hematoxylin, so they look blue.
What are the stimulators of granulopoiesis?
1. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
2. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF
3. Interleukin 1, 3, 6
T/F The mediators of inflammation produced by inflammatory cells and stromal cells can all play a role in stimulating granulopoiesis
How long does granulopoiesis maturation take and how many cells does it produce?
Occurs over 5 days, and produces 16-32 cells
T/F the storage pool is used by neutrophils and eosinophils
False, only in seen in neutrophils
What is a storage pool?
A pool of mature neutrophils that can be trapped when there is a sudden need for circulating neutrophils.
Do all species have storage pools?
No, it is most prominent in dogs, less so in ruminants
How many different pools are there during granulopoiesis?
What are the different pools a neutrophil will go through during granulopoiesis (in order)?
Proliferation pool, maturation pool, storage pool, marginal pool, circulating pool, then the tissue pool.
Do cells in the maturation and storage pools undergo mitosis?
No, they do not undergo mitosis
What occurs during the proliferation pool and how long does a cell stay there?
Cells in this pool undergo mitosis. Over a period of 2.5 days they will divide about 5 times.
From start of stimulus to production of metamyleocyte occurs in what pool?
From entry of metamyleocyte into these pools to a mature neutrophil occurs in what pool(s)?
Maturation and storage pools
What is monopoiesis?
production of monocytes
What is the first committed cell in monopoiesis?
Monocyte progenitor (MP)
Does monopoiesis use a storage pool for its cells?
No, they do not have storage pools. Once they mature they are immediately released into the venous sinusoids.
What is the terminally differentiated cell in monopoiesis?
The macrophage or dendritic cell.
What difference between a macrophage and a dendritic cell?
Macrophage is found in the blood vasculature and tissue. A dendritic cell is found in the nervous system.
What are the functions of monopoiesis? (3)
1. Participates in inflammation (similar to neutrophils)
2. Participates in innate and adaptive immune system.
3. Migrates to tissues to become macrophages, dendritic cells and other phagocytic cells throughout the body.
What factors are involved in regulation of monopoiesis?
Cytokines involved in inflammation (similar to granulocytes); GM-CSF, IL-1,3,6, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)
What does a macrophage look like?
What is the function of a mast cell?
Defense against microbes (parasiticidal), participates in inflammation and plays a major role in allergic reactions.
What cell does a mast cell look similar to?
What is the difference in appearance of a mast cell compared to a basophil?
The nucleus. In a mast cell the nucleus is round, but in a basophil the nucleus is lobulated.
What is lymphopoiesis?
Production of lymphocytes
What is the first committed cell in lymphopoeisis?
Common lymphoid progenitor
T/F lymphopoiesis is the most complex process of hematopoiesis
Why is lymphopoiesis the most complex process of hematopoiesis?
It involves multiple organs
What organs does lymphopoiesis use?
Bone marrow, thymus, and peripheral lymphoid tissues
T/F along with the mast cell, lymphocytes are the only leukocytes that can divide as mature cells.
False. It is not mast cells, it is macrophages.
What are the different cells involved in lymphopoiesis?
B-lymphocytes (B-cells), T-lymphocytes (T-cells), and Natural Killer cells (NK cells).
Where do B-cells travel to, to continue maturation?
Peripheral lymphoid tissue
What cell is a terminally differentiated B-cell?
A plasma cell
What are the functions of a B-cell?
Central to humoral immunity - produces antibodies (immunoglobulin) and key effector cells.
What do T-cells leave the bone marrow as?
Where do T-cells travel to for further maturation?
Where do the T-cells travel to after they have left the thymus?
The peripheral lymphoid organs
What are some types of T-cells?
T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells and T-regulatory cells
What are the functions of T-cells?
They are central to adaptive immunity - in conjunction with B-cells modulate the humoral response. They are the effector cells of the cell mediated immune response.
Where do the majority of NK cells originate in?
The bone marrow
Where do NK cells mature and release to?
They mature in the bone marrow. Once mature, they release into circulation.
What is the function of NK cells?
Innate immunity - kills infected and neoplastic/abnormal cells
Why are lymphocytes unique?
Because they recirculate from blood to tissue and back.
List the blood cells in order from shortest to longest life span
Granulocytes (10 hours)
Lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages (months to years)
What are the two parts of a CBC?
Erythrogram (RBC and platelets) and leukogram (leukocytes)
What are the specific bone marrow disease categories?
Infectious, mylelitis, myelophthisis, and toxicity
Inflammation of the bone marrow
What is the bone marrow composed of?
hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and matrix
What are stroma cells?
Adipocytes (fat cells), fibroblasts, endothelial cells and resident macrophages
What do endothelial cells in the bone marrow do?
Regulate entry of hematopoietic cells into blood.
What do resident macrophages in the bone marrow do?
Iron storage, regulates hematopoiesis
T/F if injury occurs to the microenvironment in bone marrow has no effect on hematopoeisis
False, it has a significant effect on hematopoiesis
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