Chapter 4: Cell Structure

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Terms in this set (...)

cell
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things, smallest unit of life, must be able to carry out all the life processes
organelles
structures with a specialized function within a cell
life processes
respiration
nutrition
excretion
synthesis
transport
reproduction
regulation
growth
all are required to maintain homeostasis
levels of organization
cells
tissues
organ
organ systems
complex organism
stem cells
cells that are undifferentiated or unspecialized
epithelial cells
cells that cover or line surfaces or organs, examples: lining on inside of cheek
bacteria
type of organism in the monera kingdom that is prokaryotic
prokaryotic
a cell that does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Characteristics: round, rod or spiral shaped, relatively small, heterotrophic/autotrophic, plasma membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes, flagellum, cytoskeleton
eukaryotes
cells that does have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles: animal plant fungi and protist kingdoms
Animal Cells
irregular/round shape/ heterotrophic/relatively large/membrane bound organelles/ cell membrane/ cytoplasm/ribosomes/ nucleus/ RER/SER/ Golgi Apparatus/lysosomes/mitochondria/cytoskeleton/flagellum/ centriole
Plant Cells
box rectangular/ autotrophic/ preforms photosynthesis/ large/ membrane bound organelles/ cell membrane and wall cytoplasm ribosomes nucleus RER SER Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, central vacuole, cytoskeleton
Leeumwenhoek
first man to view living cells, discovered bacteria, credited with making of first microscope
Hooke
this man viewed cork cells, created the term cells.
The Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all organisms
3. All cells come from other cells through the process of mitosis(cell division)
Schwann
this man was a zoologist, "all animals are made of cells"
Schleiden
This man was a botanist, "all plants are made of cells"
Virchow
this made said "life comes from life" all cells come from preexisting cells by cell division
Endosymbiotic Theory
this theory explains how prokaryotes evolved into eukaryotes.
1. Small aerobic prokaryotic cells were engulfed by larger prokaryotic cells in a process called endocytosis(inside the cell)
2. Rather than digesting the cell, the two cells formed a symbiotic (beneficial) relationship. The host cells helps provide nutrients and the internal cells help to produce energy.
3. Eventually, the two cells became interdependent to survive.
cell membrane
an organelle that is non-polar, hydrophobic, semi permeable barrier made of phospholipid and protein, it controls what goes in and out of the cell, it maintains the internal environment from external environment, maintains homeostasis.PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER BOTH
cytoplasm
An organelle which is liquid material inside the cell, it contains many nutrients, many reactions (metabolic) occur here, BOTH
ribosomes
an organelle that synthesizes proteins, including enzymes, these tiny structures can be attached to the ER or free floating in the cytoplasm. BOTH
Nucleus
an organelle that controls all cell activities and function (metabolic function) contains the genetic material. BOTH
Nucleolus
an organelle that makes ribosomes, it is a dense spot located in the nucleus. BOTH
Chromatin
a cell part that is "Threadlike" material made of DNA (not dividing form of DNA) BOTH
Chromosomes
coiled rod-like DNA and are present during cell division BOTH
nuclear envelope
a cell part that surrounds the nucleus, contains nuclear pores that allows materials (ribosomes and RNA) in and out BOTH
mitochondria
an organelle that uses oxygen to release energy from food, cellular respiration occurs, ATP is the type of energy
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids BOTH
SER
ER That synthesizes lipids, phospholipids, steroids, and enzymes BOTH
RER
modifies and secretes proteins, produces more membranes for other organelles. BOTH
Golgi Apparatus
packages and prepares proteins to be sent out of the cell (secreted) Flattened membrane sacs, lysosomes are formed here, a protein is given its final shape here BOTH
lysosomes
these consist of hydrolytic enzymes. 1. Digestion or food particles by joinging together with food vacuoles 2. white blood cells kill bacteria, 3. recycle materials by digesting malfunctioning organelles. small vesicles that contain digestive enzymes, helps digest food, bacteria and old cell parts, and can release their contents to preforms cell suicide ANIMAL ONLY
centrioles
aid in cell division, made of protein microtubules ANIMAL ONLY
flagellum
long whip like structure made of microtubules that allows movement, it is located outside the cell membrane, SOME ANIMAL, SOME PROKARYOTES
Vacuole
vessicles that store water food and waste, in animal, they are small round and numerous, in plants they have a large central _______. This makes the plant firm. BOTH
cell wall
made of cellulose, gives cell its boxy structure, found in plants, PREVENT THE PLANT FROM ABSORBING TOO MUCH WATER
food vacuole
substances of nutrition enter through the membrane and are encapsulated. Phagocytosis; cell eating Pinocytosis:cell drinking
contractile vacuole
predominant in protists and algae acts like a pump to suck in fluids and food from outside environment
Osmoregulation
prevents it from bursting or being crushed, water regulation, also aids in regulation
chloroplast
where photosynthesis occurs, contains the pigment chlorophyl, sunlight gets converted into sugar. PLANTS
leucoplast
this store starch (Amylose) PLANT
Chromoplast
contains color pigments for petals and flowers, Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton
proteins in the cytoplasm that form a web which helps to maintain cell shape/structure. Holds the organelles in place
microfilaments
fine thread like strands of protein called ACTIN that aid in cytoplasmic streaming, connect microtubules.
Intermediate Filament
rope like proteins that reinforce cell shape and anchor organelles
Microtubules
main support beams, long hallow tubes made of the protein TUBULINs, the help maintain cell shape, they provide tracks for cell organelles and vesicles to move on. found in centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
Cilia
tiny hairlike projections composed of microtubules, propel organism through fluid medium
Pseudopod
a false foot, formed by breaking down of cytoskeleton, do not always exsist
amoeba
chaos- no set shape or structure
Cell junctions
these allow communication and exchange between adjacent cells
Plasomodesmata
channels between adjacent plant cells that allow chemical messages and nourishment to be shared
tight junctions
ANIMAL provide tight leakproof seals between cells ex. epithelial cells that line blood vessels
Demsosomes
adhesion junctions or adherents ANIMAL fasten cells together with cytoskeletal fibers, allow stretching. Ex. muscle and skin
gap junction
ANIMAL allow communication and exchange between adjacent cells ( called plasomodesmata in plant cells)
protists
although they are single celled, the are eukaryotic and require all organelles to stay alive. Ex. Amoeba
cytoplasmic streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
Transport Vesicle
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
Secretory Vesicle
contain secretions that will be discharged from the cell these vesicles will perform exocytosis (fusing with the plasma membrane to empty contents)