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ntr3450 midterm 1
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1. Define nutrition counseling and nutrition education.
Nutrition counseling is a supportive process guiding a client toward a nutritional well-being in which an individual's priorities, goals, and barriers are considered while nutrition education is a combination of educational strategies aimed to promote voluntary adoption of health-promoting dietary behaviors. Counseling interventions target the needs of individual clients while nutrition education has a wider target audience based on community needs
What is generally considered the most important determinant of food choices?
Taste is generally accepted as the most important determinant of food choices
Name and explain the seven qualities of counselors considered to be the most influential by leading authorities as identified by Okun.
Knowledgeable: Counselors have knowledge in a vast array of biological and social science subjects with application in culinary arts. Clients want counselors who are experienced with the problems that they face.Self-aware: Counselors have a self-awareness of own beliefs and internal values leading to clear priorities. Clients want counselors who are not helping them to fulfil their own needs.Ethical integrity: Counselors value all people regardless of race, sex, ability, age, religion, sexual preferences, etc. Congruence: Counselor is unified in verbal and nonverbal responses and without contradiction in who the counselor is and what the counselor says.Honest: Counselors who are authentic and sincere while showing openness and willingness to disclose information about themselves as appropriate.Good communicators: Counselors must communicate information clearly but also remain tactful and sincere with regard for client's thoughts and concerns.Gender and culture aware: Effective counselors have respect for the diverse values of clients
Explain how taking on the role of helper improves the self-image of the helper.
Taking on the role of helper can be divided into two core phases: building a relationship and facilitating positive action. By establishing rapport and building trust, a self-exploration occurs that can open the second phase of the counseling process. Working
together to identify behaviors and setting realistic behavior change strategies allows the client to feel in control of their next steps rather than being told what to do.
Identify and explain how seeking to fulfill two basic needs of counselors through a counseling relationship can be detrimental to the relationship.
If a counselor has a need to express power and influence over others, the counselor is less likely to listen to a client's needs and simply expect obedience. If a counselor needs approval and acceptance, the counselor often gives in/aims to please the client, which results in the client not learning new management skills for dietary changes to occur.
Why is it important for counselors to understand their worldviews to achieve cultural sensitivity?
Recognizing one's own worldview provides a basic understanding of conscious and unconscious influences and assumptions. The conscious and unconscious thoughts and prejudices may interfere with objectivity in counseling sessions. Awareness of these prejudices is important for building tolerances and a commitment to not allowing them to interfere in the counseling process.
What are the benefits of using theoretical behavior change theories and models?
Presents a road map for understanding health behaviors. Highlight variables (for example, knowledge, skills) to target in an intervention. Supplies rationale for designing nutrition interventions that will influence knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Guides the process for eliciting behavior change. Provides the tools and strategies to facilitate behavior change. Provides the outcome measures to assess effectiveness of interventions.
Why does a high level of self-efficacy correlate positively with health behavior changes?
Self-perception of efficacy affects individual choices, the amount of effort put into a task, views of barriers, and willingness to pursue goals when faced with obstacles results in the confidence in the ability to accomplish behavior change.
Identify and explain the six constructs of the Health Belief Model.Perceived susceptibility and severity: Personal risk was addressed by emphasizing increased risk for heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and constipation.
Perceived benefits: To encourage beliefs regarding benefits, lessons highlighted nutritional superiority of whole grains over refined grains. Perceived barriers: To overcome obstacles, lessons provided taste tests and education regarding labeling of whole grains. Self-efficacy: To increase confidence, lessons included demonstrations and opportunities to practice reading labels. Cues to action: Participants were given recipes, tips sheets, and education materials to foster cues to action at home.
.Identify and explain the five stages of change in the Transtheoretical Model.
Precontemplation: The person has no intention of changing within the next six months and in fact resists any effort to modify the problem behavior. Contemplation: Person recognizes a need to change but is in a state of ambivalence, alternating between reasons to change and reasons not to change. Preparation: Preparers have identified a strong motivator, believe the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of changing, and are committed to take action in the near future (within the next thirty days).
Action: Clients are considered to be in this stage if they have altered the target behavior to an acceptable degree for one day or up to six months and continue to work at it. Although changes have been continuous in this stage, they know behaviors should not be viewed as permanent. Maintenance: Client has been engaging in the new behavior for more than six months and is consolidating the gains attained during previous stages. Termination: Individuals in this stage are not tempted to relapse and are 100 percent confident that the behavior will continue.
According to the Theory of Planned Behavior, three factors that affect behavioral intention are attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Explain these factors.
Attitude: favorable or unfavorable evaluations about a given behavior. They are strongly influenced by our beliefs about the outcomes of our actions (outcome beliefs) and how important these outcomes are to the client (evaluation of outcomes). Subjective norm: perceived social pressure reflects beliefs about whether significant others approve or disapprove of the behavior. Determined by two factors: normative beliefs and motivation to comply. Perceived behavioral control: overall measure of an individual's perceived control over the behavior.
Explain reciprocal determinism, a main principle of Social Cognitive Theory.
There is a dynamic interaction of personal factors, behavior, and the environment with a change in one capable of influencing the others.
Explain why unconditional positive regard is essential for client-centered counseling.
Clients actively participate in clarifying needs and exploring potential solutions. They realize their potential for growth in an environment of unconditional positive self-regard. Counselors help develop this environment by totally accepting clients without passing judgments on their thoughts, behaviors, or physique.
Which type of therapy works at changing harmful thinking?
Cognitive therapies. Clients learn to distinguish between thoughts and feelings, become aware of ways in which their thoughts influence feelings, critically analyze the validity of their thoughts, and develop skills to interrupt and change harmful thinking.
Which type of therapy focuses on changing the environment?
Stimulus control (manage your environment). Change the environment to alter the prompts that encourage the unhealthy behavior and add reminders to engage in healthy behaviors.
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