IB History European Imperialism
Critical terms and evidences from palmer sherman williamson and all the rest of the ninja turtles
Terms in this set (62)
Conference of Berlin
(1884-1885) regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference.
Ex. The beginning part of colonialism, Henry Morton Stanley's discovery of the Congo River Basin (1874-1877) removed the last bit of terra incognita.
an unknown and unexplored region
Term used to describe territories governed directly by THE WHITE MAN
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs
This became a colony for emancipated slaves
Battle of Adowa
The Italians suffered a great defeat at this battle in Ethiopia
The Fashoda Crisis
when Britain and France were on the brink of war of who would be in control and gain the land of Fashoda - the French eventually backed down and allowed Britain to strengthen its hold over the Sudan
The Boer War
a conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa
The Transvaal War
War fought from 1880-1881, also known as the First Boer War
This man advocated German colonization because he said Germany had a cultural mission
Does Germany Need Colonies?
pamphlet which said colonization in Germany would help with growth, power, and nationalism; Germany should strive toward colonization like Britain did - friendly competition; German culture is superior and with colonies we can share it
Heinrich von Treitschke
German historian in the 19th century who advocated German nationalism and militarism. He believed the German race was really awesome, that only strong and powerful nations should exist, that war is often necessary, and he also hated the English and Jews.
(1864-1936) English writer and poet; defined the "white man's burden" as the duty of European and Euro-American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands.
White Man's Burden
A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions nations took. Some people think this work was satirical.
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
The Great Trek
The voyage where many Afrikaners migrate inland due to British occupation of coast and abolition of slavery, because the Afrikaners had a lot of slave. Diamonds were found where the Afrikaners migrated to and this started a great war
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
African country named after Cecil Rhodes; now Zimbabwe
The Algeciras Conference
The meeting between the European nations and the United States in 1906 that guaranteed an equal opportunity of trade for Morocco, which was reminiscent of the Open Door Policy in China, but created tension between Germany and France that would be reiterated during the subsequent World Wars.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
The western North African countries of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco are collectively called .......
God, Gold, and Glory
This was a summary of the three reasons that Europeans sailed to new destinations. They wanted gold and silver to enrich their own countries, new Christian converts among native populations, and glory and fame among their own people.
This was the year in which US built a navy for the Spanish American War
Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, this country decided to build a shiny new navy
Another way to refer to refer to Ethiopia, you get bonus points if you use it
This American commodore opened up Japan
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
sphere of influence
area in which a foreign nation had special trading privileges and made laws for its own citizens
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
~HISTORIOGRAPHY!~ Historian who said imperialism was created from political movements, particularly liberalism
~HISTORIOGRAPHY!~ Historian who talked about how Germany unified
Eric J. Hobsbawm
~HISTORIOGRAPHY!~ Historian who said imperialism was created because of economic reasons
Carlton J.H. Hayes
~HISTORIOGRAPHY!~ Historian who said imperialism was created because of rising nationalism
Daniel R. Headrick
~HISTORIOGRAPHY!~ Historian who said imperialism came around because of technology (wrote "Tools of the Empire")
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881)
Incident in France where a Jewish captain was tried for treason because they military was anti-Semitic, and it divided the country
This was the year Britain abolished slavery
This was the only Chinese port the Westerners were allowed to enter in China before those dastardly Opium Wars
The Opium Wars
Primarily a naval conflict, these wars were fought between China and England because England kept smuggling opium into China. The Chinese, whose navy was outdated, were no match for England's modern, steam-powered gunboats. China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing. Opium trade continued.
The Chinese sure loved this drug
Treaty of Nanjing
This treaty in 1842 ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws. This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these were Hong Kong.
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation, the British had this in china
Chinese dynasty in power when those devilish British arrived and messed everything up
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source, lots of chinese people figured the Manchus had lost this after their defeat by the British in the Opium Wars
Treaty of Tien-Sin
-Legalized opium trade.
-Allowed freedom christian missionaries
-more war reparations
-not allowed to refer to British people as barbarians
Britain owned this place, hint: gandhi was from here
The Indians caused this in 1857 against their British overlords, it was put down
This empire was centered in north India led by Muslims, ended when the British came in
Heavenly Reason Society
This society in China attempted to seize Peking in 1813, they believed the Manchus had lost the mandate of heaven
A very destructive civil war in China in 1850y. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. Leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Treaty of Shimonoseki
(1895): Disastrous treaty for China, ending the Sino‑Japanese War (1894‑1895). Under its terms Korea effectively became a Japanese protectorate. China ceded to Japan Taiwan, the Pescadores, the Liaodong region of Manchuria, added four more treaty ports, and promised to pay Japan 200 million taels in war indemnities.
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China,
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where Teddy R. mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the Nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor. You first have to disembowel yourself and then your buddy chops off your head. FOR HONOR AND GLORY
(1852-1912) Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912. He was responsible for the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan.
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854 treaty between Japan and the US. Japan agreed to open two ports to American ships
Battle of Tsushima
In May 1905, the Japanese's navy stunned the world with the complete destruction of the Russian Baltic fleet at this battle in the Russo-Japanese War
Battle of Mukden
Japanese army defeated Russia at this battle in the Russo-Japanese War, entire defeat revealed Russia's backwardness
Royal Niger Company
this company had control of the palm-oil trade along the Niger River after the Berlin Conference gave Britain a protectorate over the Niger River delta
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