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a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web
elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed between organisms and parts of the biosphere in a cycle
the process by which carbon and oxygen cycle among plants, animals, and the environment
the process in which nitrogen circulates among the air, soil, water, plants, and animals in an ecosystem
the continuous cycle of the transfer of water through an ecosystem, which involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, and precipitation
the cyclic movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment
the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment
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