Excelsior English III Unit 4

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Transcendentalism
A literary and philosophical perspective and movement in America whose cornerstone beliefs are as follows:
Human senses are limited; they convey knowledge of the physical world, but deeper truths can be grasped only through intuition.
The observation of nature illuminates the nature of human beings.
God, nature, and humanity are united in a shared universal soul, or Over-Soul.
The two most prominent authors were Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Their ideas also included non-violent protest and equality for all people.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The father of Transcendentalism and the author of Nature and Self-Reliance
Challenging a text
When you read an opinion piece, or a piece that makes and argument, do not simply accept the ideas- challenge them! Question the author's meanings, assertions, and reasoning. Do your own research and come up with your own ideas.
Blithe
Carefree
Connate
Existing naturally; innate
Chaos
Disorder of matter and space, supposed to have existed before the ordered universe.
Aversion
Object arousing an intense dislike
Suffrage
Vote or voting
Divines
Clergy
Radiant
Shining Brightly
Tumultuous
Rough and stormy
Bastions
Fortifications
Nature
Written by Ralph Waldo Emerson about Transcendentalism. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary of Nature: http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature
Self-Reliance
Written by Ralph Waldo Emerson about Transcendentalism. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary of the first section of Self-Reliance: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/e/emersons-essays/summary-and-analysis-of-selfreliance/paragraphs-117
Concord Hymn
Written by Ralph Waldo Emerson about the shot heard round the world- the first shot of the American Revolution- fired in Concord. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to watch the former President of the United States read Concord Hymn: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-XViGsKwNY
Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the analysis of Concord Hymn: http://education.seattlepi.com/poem-concord-hymn-talking-about-5022.html
The Snowstorm
Written by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the analysis of The Snowstorm: http://www.bachelorandmaster.com/britishandamericanpoetry/the-snow-storm.html#.VjcHr3pViko
Henry David Thoreau
The author of Civil Disobedience and Walden. He was a transcendentalist and his ideas also included non-violent protest and equality for all people.
Style
The manner in which a writer puts his or her thoughts into words. Thoreau builds his stories to a climax and uses repetition of his main idea to ensure readers understand his message.
Metaphor
A figure of speech that implies a comparison between two unlike things.
Evaluating the Writer's Statement of Philosophy
Do not simply accept the ideas being presented to you. Instead, pay special attention to the support the writer provides you on their outlook and compare it to your own ideas or research.
Dilapidated
In disrepair
Sublime
Noble or majestic
Superfluous
Excessive or not necessary
Evitable
Avoidable
Magnanimity
Generosity
Expedient
Resource
Posterity
All succeeding generations
Alacrity
Speed
Walden: From Where I Lived, and What I Lived For
Written by Henry David Thoreau. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the analysis of Walden's From Where I Lived, and What I Lived For:
http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/walden/section2.rhtml
Walden: The Conclusion
Written by Henry David Thoreau. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the analysis of Walden's The Conclusion: http://www.shmoop.com/walden-thoreau/conclusion-summary.html
Civil Disobedience
Written by Henry David Thoreau. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the analysis of Civil Disobedience:
http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/civildisobedience/section1.rhtml
Walt Whitman
One of the most influential poets in American history. He was the first American poet to use free verse to write his poems.
Free Verse
The opposite of poems with strict patterns and meter. Free verse has irregular meter and line length.
Diction
Word choice and arrangement. Whitman uses diction that includes long lists and parallel forms (the repetition of phrases or sentences with similar structure and meaning).
Inferring a Poet's Attitude
You can guess a poet's attitude by looking at the diction and the details they give you.
Abeyance
Temporary suspension
Effuse
Pour out
Preface to Leaves of Grass
Written by Walt Whitman. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary of the Preface to Leaves of Grass:
http://loki.stockton.edu/~kinsellt/projects/log/storyReader$32.html
Song of Myself
Written by Walt Whitman. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary to Song of Myself:
http://www.shmoop.com/song-of-myself/
When I heard the Learn'd Astronomer
Written by Walt Whitman. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary: http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides5/astronomer.html
By the Bivouac's Fitful Flame
Written by Walt Whitman. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary:
http://www.poemofquotes.com/waltwhitman/by-the-bivouacs-fitful-flame.php
I Hear America Singing
Written by Walt Whitman. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary:
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/l/leaves-of-grass/summary-and-analysis-inscriptions/i-hear-america-singing
A Noiseless Patient Spider
Written by Walt Whitman. Copy and Paste this link into the URL of a new tab to view the summary:
http://www.shmoop.com/noiseless-patient-spider/summary.html