Anatomy Final Exam
Bhuvana Anatomy Final Exam Crossword Puzzle Words
Terms in this set (185)
The process of increasing the refractive power of the lens of the eye; focusing.
Cuplike cavity on lateral surface of the hip bone that receives the femur.
Chemical transmitter substance received by some nerve endings.
A contractile protein of a muscle.
Areolar connective tissue modified to store nutrients; a connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells.
A localized dilation of a canal or duct.
Study of the structure of living organisms.
Muscle that reverses, or opposes, the action of another muscle.
Major systemic artery; arises from the left ventricle out of the heart.
The less numerous type of sweat gland; produces a secretion containing water, salts, proteins, and fatty acids.
Fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves.
Relating to the limbs; one of the two major divisions of the body.
Watery fluid in the anterior chambers of the eye.
Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges.
Hyaline cartilage covering bone ends at movable joints.
A type of CNS supporting cell; assists in the exchanges between blood capillaries and neurons.
Wall that separates the atrium from the ventricle.
The two superior receiving chambers of the heart.
Relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body.
The left atrioventricular valve.
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
A fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid; occurs between bones and muscle tendons (or other structures), where it acts to decrease friction during movement.
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels of the blood; also called thyrocalcitonin.
Sequence of events encompassing one complete contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart.
Specialized muscle of the heart.
Brain region most involved in producing smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle activity.
The cerebral hemispheres and the structures of the diencephalon.
Receptors sensitive to various chemicals in solution.
Nerve endings that, upon stimulation, release acetylcholine.
Actively mitotic cell form of cartilage.
Mature cell form of cartilage.
Fibers attatched to the tricuspid valve which pull it closed when papillary muscles contract, preventing backwash of blood
A capillary knot that protrudes into a brain ventricle; involved in forming CSF.
3-5 fused vertebrae that form the tailbone.
Snail-shaped chamber of the bony labyrinth that houses the receptor for hearing (the Organ of Corti).
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue.
A rounded knob that articulates with another bone.
One of the two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye; provide for color vision.
Thin, protective mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior surface of the eye itself.
Transparent anterior portion of the eyeball; part of the fibrous tunic.
A collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).
A wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex in the eutherian brain at the longitudinal fissure. It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication.
Hyaline cartilage connecting ribs to sternum.
Process in which melanin is passed from the melanocyte to nearby keratinocytes.
Branching neuron process that serves as a receptive, or input, region; transmits the nerve impulse toward the cell body.
Layer of skin deep to the epidermis; composed of dense irregular tissue.
Elongated shaft of a long bone.
Period of the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or the atria are relaxing.
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
Outermost and toughest of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord.
Sweat glands abundant on the palms, soles of feet and the forehead.
Graphic record of the electrical activity of the heart.
Endothelial membrane that lines the interior of the heart.
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones formed by this process.
Fluid that bathes the sensory receptors of the inner ear.
Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces.
A type of CNS supporting cell; lines the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord.
Outer layer of heart wall; "on the heart"; visceral layer of serous pericardium.
Sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle.
The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft.
An irregularly shaped bone located between the eye orbits; it helps form the boney structure of the nasal cavity.
Tube that connects the nimble ear and the pharynx. Also called auditory tube, eustachian tube.
Layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscle.
Young, actively mitotic cell that forms the fibers of connective tissue.
The most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
Openings in bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone.
Area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute.
Articulates with humerus to form shoulder joint.
Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin (STH).
An outward fold of the surface of the cerebral cortex.
Structure with outer and inner root sheaths extending from the epidermal surface into the dermis and from which new hair develops.
Glands that accumulate their secretions within their cells; secretions are discharged only upon rupture and cell death.
A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body.
Bone located in the upper arms. Extends from the elbow to shoulder.
The most abundant cartilage type in the body; provides firm support with some pliability.
A U-shaped bone located in the upper neck. It anchors the tongue and is associated with swallowing. It's often fractured during strangulation.
Middle lower region below the umbilical region. The pubic region.
The pituitary gland.
Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.
Lateral portion of the hip bone.
Anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear, connects the malleus to the stapes.
A stalk of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
Movable attachment of a muscle.
Skin and its derivatives; provides the external protective covering of the body.
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
(Mainly forms head bones) Develops from mesenchyme to produce flat bones of the skull, some facial bones, the mandible and central portion of clavicle. Uses fibrous connective tissues (to form flat bones) and fibroblasts (dense).
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, and nails that makes those structures hard and water-repellant; precursor is keratohyaline.
Bony cavities and membranes of the inner ear.
Gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears.
A small space, cavity, or depression; lacunae in bone or cartilage are occupied by cells.
Functional brain system involved in emotional response.
Portion of the back between the thorax and the pelvis. If pertaining to vertebrae, the five vertebrae of the lumbar region of the vertebral column; the small of the back.
Granular white blood cell that arises from bone marrow and becomes functionally mature in the lymphoid organs of the body.
Static equilibrium receptor within the vestibule of the inner ear.
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines.
Toward the midline of the body.
A subdivision of the thoracic cavity containing the pericardial cavity.
Nerve endings which are sensitive to touch; they are found in some of the dermal papillae.
Dark pigment formed by cells have melanocytes; imparts color to skin and hair.
A valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle; prevents the blood in the ventricle from returning to the atrium. Alternative name is bicuspid valve.
Fatty insulating sheath that surrounds all but the smallest nerve fibers.
Layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle.
One of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle.
Non excitable cells of neural tissue that support, protect, and insulate the neurons; glial cells.
Large granular body found in neurons. These granules are rough endoplasmic reticulum (with free ribosomes) and are the site of protein synthesis.
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath of the axons of peripheral neruons. Action potentials can 'jump' from node to node, thus increasing the speed of conduction (saltatory conduction).
A catecholamine (biogenic amine) neurotransmitter and adrenal medullary hormone, associated with sympathetic nervous system activation.
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Pertaining to smell.
Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.
Comprised of the axons of retinal ganglion cells, this carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Organ of Corti
Center part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes.
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix.
System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; also called Haversian system.
Calcium carbonate-protein granules that add to the density and inertia and enhance the sense of gravity and motion.
Cells that act as "drummers" to set the contractile pace for the entire muscle sheet.
Oval receptors deep in the dermis. Responsible for deep cutaneous pressure and vibration.
Bone that forms the posterior 1/3 portion of the hard palate, posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the orbits.
Gland located behind the stomach, between the spleen and the duodenum; produces both endocrine and exocrine secretions.
Small, nipplelike projections (e.g. dermal papillae are projections of dermal tissue into the epidermis).
Cone-like projections on the ventricular walls, to which the chordae tendineae are attached. The contraction of the papillary muscles and the tightening of the chordae tendineae prevent the valve flaps of the AV valves from turning inside out into the atria.
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
Lines cavity walls.
Double-layered serosa enclosing the heart and forming its superficial layer.
Fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear.
Peripheral Nervous System
Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube organs (or that move other substances through other hollow body organs).
Serous membrane lining the interior of the abdominal cavity and covering the surfaces of abdominal organs.
14 bones that comprise the toes: 3 for each toe except the big toe, which has only two; there are analogous bones in the hands that go by the same name.
Study of the function of living organisms.
Inner layer of meninges; intimately attached to brain following contours; carries small blood vessels to nourish underlying nervous tissue.
A hormone-secreting part of the diencephalon of the brain though tot be involved in setting the biological clock and influencing reproductive function.
Neuroendocrine gland located beneath the brain that serves a variety of functions including regulation of gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation, and water balance.
A thin membrane that surrounds the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity.
Slice of cartilage between the pelvic bone that allows for expansion during child birth.
Vessels that deliver blood to the lungs to be oxygenated.
Opening in the center of the iris through which light enters the eye.
Resting membrane potential
The voltage that exists across the plasma membrane during the resting state of an excitable cell; ranges from -50 to -200 millivolts depending on cell type.
The part of the brain that is involved in attention, sleep, and arousal
Neural tunic of the eyeball; contains photoreceptors (rods, cones).
A light-sensitive pigment found in the rod cells that is formed by retinal and opsin.
One of the two types of photosensitive cells in the retina. Located in the periphery of the retina, these are sensory receptors for vision that work best in reduced illumination, and only allow perception of achromatic colors, low sensitivity to detail and are not involved in color vision.
A small, fluid-filled sac under the utricle in the vestibular system that responds to static positions of the head.
Bone formed from five vertebrae fused together near the base of the spinal column.
A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
The smallest contractile unit of muscle; extends from one Z disc to the next.
Either of two flat triangular bones one on each side of the shoulder in human beings. The shoulder blade.
A type of supporting cell in the PNS; forms myelin sheaths and is vital to peripheral nerve fiber regeneration.
White opaque portion of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball.
Oily secretion of sebaceous glands.
Valves that prevent blood return to the ventricles after contraction.
Nerves that contain processes of sensory neurons and carry impulses to the central nervous system.
Specialized myocardial cells in the wall of the right atrium; pacemaker of the heart.
A butterfly-shaped bone that forms part of the floor and sides of the cranium. It also forms part of the orbits surrounding the eyes.
Flattened and scalelike epithelial cells.
A bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear. The stirrup-shaped small bone is one of three ossicles in the middle ear. The stapes receives vibrations from the incus, to which it is connected laterally, and transmits these to the oval window, medially.
A repeating series of dark and light bands; evident along the length of each myofibril.
A furrow on the brain, less deep than a fissure.
Refers to the head or upper body regions.
Functional junction or point of close contact between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell.
A large multinucleate cell, typically formed by the fusion of many smaller cells during development (e.g. a skeletal muscle cell), or formed by nuclear division in the absence of cellular division.
Synovial (Joint? Fluid?)
Fluid: lubricates joint surfaces and nourishes articular cartilages. Joint: freely movable joint exhibiting a joint cavity; also called a diarthrosis.
Period when either the ventricles or the atria are contracting.
Articulates with the fibia and tibia: the ankle.
Cords of dense fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone.
A mass of gray matter in the diencephalon of the brain.
Larger of two lower leg bones; inside of leg. The weight bearing bone of the leg.
A collection of nerve fibers in the central nervous system having the same origin, termination, and function.
Resembles both stratified squamous and stratifies cuboidal; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar; surface cells are dome-shaped or squamous-like, depending on degree of organ stretch.
The right atrioventricular valve.
Large semi-circular notch between the olecranon and coronoid processes. Articulates with the trochlea of humerus to form part of the elbow joint.
Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.
Neuron in which embryological fusion of the two processes leaves only one process extending from the cell body.
Larger of the 2 membranous sacs responds to forward/backward head movements, linear acceleration and gravity.
Cranial Nerve 10. The only cranial nerve to extend beyond the head and neck to the thorax and abdomen.
Either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Paired, inferiorly located heart chambers that function as the major blood pumps.
Jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shape.
A thin plate of bone located in the midline of the of the floor of the nasal cavity.
The lower, narrow portion of the sternum.
Form the prominence of the cheek and part of the lateral wall and floor of each orbit.
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