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77 terms

Social Studies-Ancient India and Persia, REligions

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South Asia
home to the world's tallest mountains;also is a subcontinent
the Himalayas
the world's tallest mountains
subcontinent
a large expanse of land that juts out from the mainland and is seperated by water from other areas
Asian subcontinent
subcontinent that may have been part of a huge landmass that included Asia, South America, Africa, Austrailia, and Antarctica
eight
the # of countries that are included in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives Islands)
Hindu Kush and the Himalayas
mountain ranges that seperate South Asia from the rest of the continent
Pakistan
country located in the northwestern region of South Asia and is home to the world's second largest mountain
K2
the world's second largest mountain
South Asia's different climate seasons
mild temperatures from Oct.-Feb., hot from March-May, monsoon season from June-Sept.
monsoon season
season that is very important to the farmers and the economy
three rivers in the South Asian subcontinent
Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra
subsistence farming
form of farming in which nearly all the crops are used to support the farmer and his family
India and Pakistan's problem
they are too heavily populated countries
a billion
how many people live in India
Deccan Plateau
plateau that lies between the Adrian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and it is made of lava, which produces a rich black soil;it's bordered on the west and east by the East and Western Ghats Mts.
farmers
what most people in India are
fishing and clothing manufacturing
important industries along India's southern border
Indus River Valley
first place that people started to settle in around 3500 B.C.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
to cities uncovered by archaeologists in the 1920's and 30's
2500-1700 B.C.
years that the Harappan civilization began and disappeared
natural disaster
how the Harappan civilization disappeared
Aryans
people who migrated to the Indus River Valley around 1500 B.C. from the north across the Hindu Kush Mts. and through the Khyber Pass
Sanskrit
a new language that the Aryans spoke
Vedas
"Books of Knowledge" that the Aryans left behind that contained stories and songs
chariots
horse-drawn carriage: a new technology
rajah
priest leader who leaded an Aryan group
Aryan society (in order)
priests and teachers, warriors and kings, cultivators and artisans and traders and merchants, and sudras and serfs
Cyrus the second
founder of the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
empire that stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River Valley
roads and trade
developments that connected India with other lands in Asia
Zoarastroianism
religion that was brought to Persia by the prophet Zoaraster
Chandragupta Maurya
a soldier who seized power in India and started the Mauryan Empire
Ashoka
Chandragupta's granson who took power around 270 B.C.
government
the people who took control over many aspects of life and was highly organized
how the MauRyan Empire ended
when conflicts among the regions broke out in India
Gupta Empire
empire that began in 320 A.D.
science, math, poetry, art, and literature
advancements that India flourished within the Gupta period
trade
how the Gupta economy began to improve
Huns
people who took over the Gupta empire
Hinduism
the main religion of India that is based on Aryan beliefs
world's oldest religion
Hinduism
four
the amount of Vedas
Rig Veda
collecton of hymns that priests recite at ceremonies and rituals
no one
the founder of Hinduism
how Hinduism started
with the religious beliefs of the Aryans from the written Vedas
Brahman
the source and final destination of everything according to Hinduism, who is the one universal being
the 3 principal forms of Brahman
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
Shiva
the destroyer, according to Hinduism
Vishnu
the preserver, according to Hinduism, who maintains dharma
Brahma
the creator, according to Hinduism
dharma
the order of the universe, according to Hinduism
Hindus
what the followers of Hinduism are called
the seven essential doctrines or beliefs
peaceful living, freedom of thought, respect for nature and animals, becoming one with Brahman, and the fact that good and bad actiona will one day affect us
reincarnation
the process through which a person goes from one life to the next
karma
the lifetime actions of a person
caste
a lifelong social group that a person is born into
what castes determine
which job each caste member is qualified for
caste system
Hindu system that shows the people at the top, bottom, and middle of the caste
priests and teachers
people at the top of the caste system
rulers and warriors
people who are second in the caste system
farmers and merchants
people who are third in the caste system
untouchables
"servants of all others" who are at the very bottom of the caste system
Siddharta Gautama
the man who came to be known as the Buddha
"the Enlightened One"
another name for Siddharta
a sick person, an old man, a dead body, and a monk
what Siddharta saw when he left the palace
6th century B.C.
when Siddharata was born
who Siddharta joined
a group of men who sought understanding and simple living
six years
how long Siddharta fasted
how Siddharta became enlightened
he sat under a tree and meditated until he realized that all people had the power within them to become free from suffering
Four Noble Truths
what Buddhism is based on. they're about human suffering.
Noble Truth #1
suffering is a part of life for all people
Noble Truth #2
people suffer because they want so many things in life
Noble Truth #3
if people can free themselves from wanting so many things, they will be free from suffering
Noble Truth #4
people can free themselves from suffering by following the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path
way of living that can help people find relief from suffering
wisdom, morality, and meditation
three qualities that the Eightfold Path reccomends
actions, efforts, and ways of thinking
things that the Eightfold Path says will help Buddhists develop the three Eightfold Path qualities