35 terms

AP Psych Ch. 06 - Consciousness

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Consciousness
The general state of being aware of and responsive to events in the environment, as well as one's own mental processes
Circadian Rhythms
Internally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Graphical record of brain-wave activity obtained through electrodes placed on the scalp and forehead
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Stage of sleep characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude brain-wave activity, rapid and systematic eye movements, more vivid dreams, and postural muscle paralysis
Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Four distinct stages of sleep during which no rapid eye movements occur.
Insomnia
Problems in going to sleep or maintaining sleep
Dream
A state of consciousness that occurs during sleep, usually accompanied by vivid visual, tactile, or auditory imagery.
Lucid Dream
Dream in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming while it is happening
Manifest Content
The overt story line, characters, and setting of a dream-the obvious, clearly discernible events of the dream
Latent Content
The deeper meaning of a dream, usually involving symbolism hidden meaning, and repressed or obscured ideas and wishes
Collective Unconscious
Jung's theory of a shared storehouse of primitive ideas and images that are inherited ideas and images, called archetypes, are emotionally charged and rich in meaning and symbolism
Descriptive Studies
A type of research method that allows researchers to measure variables so that they can develop a description of a situation or phenomenon
Biofeedback
A process through which people receive information about the status of a physical system and use this feedback information to learn to control the activity of that system
Mediation
The use of a variety of techniques including concentration, restriction of incoming stimuli, and deep relaxation to produce a state of consciousness characterized by a sense of detachment.
Drug
Any chemical substance that, in small amounts, alters biological or cognitive processes or both
Psychoactive Drug
A drug that alters behavior, thought, or perception by altering biochemical reactions in the nervous system, thereby affecting consciousness
Tolerance
The characteristic of requiring higher and higher doses of a drug to produce the same effect.
Dependence
The situation that occurs when the drug becomes part of the body's functioning and produces withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
Blood-Brain Barrier
A mechanism that prevents certain molecule from entering the brain but allows others to cross
depressants (AKA sedative-hypnotics)
Any of a class of drugs that relax and calm a user and, in higher doses, induce sleep; also known as a depressant
opiates (AKA narcotics)
Drugs derived from the opium poppy, including opium, morphine, and heroin
Stimulant
A drug that increases alertness, reduces fatigue, and elevates mood
hallucinogens (AKA psychedelic drugs)
Consciousness-altering drugs that affect moods, thoughts, memory, judgment, and perception and that are consumed for the purpose of producing those results
Substance Abuser
A person who overuses and relies on drugs to deal with everyday life
Withdrawal Symptoms
The Reaction experienced when a substance abuser stops using a drug with dependence properties
preconscious
level of consciousness that is outside awareness but contains feelings and memories that can easily be brought into conscious awareness
unconscious
level of consciousness that includes unacceptable feelings, wishes, and thoughts not directly available to conscious awareness
nonconscious
the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing)
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
sleep stage when the eyes move about, during which vivid dreams occur; brain very active but skeletal muscles paralyzed
hypnosis
state with deep relaxation and heightened suggestibility
adenosine
neurotranmitter that causes drowsiness
pineal gland
gland that produces melatonin
hypothalamus
structure in the brain involved in sleep
suprachiasmatic nucleus
part of the brain that monitors light and regulates the sleep/wake cycle
melatonin
hormone secreted by the pineal gland; causes drowsiness
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