Psychology History, Science, and Research Review Questions

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What is psychological science, what does it study, how do you study mental activity and why does psychology study behavior?
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Terms in this set (43)
Explain the main idea behind Gestalt theory and which school in psychology it was a reaction to.Explain how the humanistic approach was different from psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Who are two psychologists who followed this approach? In what period did humanistic psychology orginate?What was the cognitive revolution in psychology? Who are the two people that your book credits for this. In which period did this approach originate?Explain what evolutionary psychology is and how it explains psychological phenomena.What four levels of analysis does your book distinguish to study mind and behavior?Be able to distinguish what level of analysis a study is if given a description of the study.Be able to distinguish what area of psychology the researcher is from if given a description of a study.What are the four primary goals of science?Know the order in which the steps in research are taken (e.g. literature review before or after the data analysis?)How are theory, hypothesis and research related? What does it mean for a hypothesis to be falsifiable (book)?What is replication and why is it important?Explain what a variable is.What is the difference between structured, naturalistic and participant observation? When are case studies done?Why are brain scans and physiological measures 'sort of' classed under observation, rather than under self-report?What two forms of self-report are used in data collection in psychology?Explain what the observer effect/reactivity is. How did the studies in the Hawthorne Works demonstrate reactivity?What is observer bias, and why is it a problem? How does blinding to study hypotheses take care of this effect?How did Rosenthal's study of students training rats to run mazes demonstrate the experimenter expectancy effect? How does blinding to study hypotheses take care of this effect?What are the 3 main types of designs? (which 'design' type does your instructor not really think is a design and why?). What are the two stages of a correlational study?What are the directions in a correlation? What does the direction indicate? What is the magnitude of a correlation? What does the magnitude indicate? What does a zero correlation indicate?. What is a scatterplot? Recognize one when you see it.What are three problems with correlation?What is the directionality problem in correlations? What is the third variable problem in correlations?How is experimental research different from correlational research in its design (i.e. how it treats the people it studies, the variables etc.)Why is random assignment so very important in experiments?What is the difference between an experimental group and a control group?What is an operational definition?What is the difference between an independent and a dependent variable?Why are we allowed to make causal statements in the case of an experiment and NOT in the case of correlational studies?What is a confound? What are populations & how do they differ from a sample?What is an IRB? What purpose does it serve? What types ethical issues does the IRB evaluate? What is informed consent?What is an IACUC and what is its purpose?