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Tindall and Shi; The South and the West Transformed (Ch 19)
Terms in this set (41)
This industry, inspired from the Civil War defeat, became the South's largest industry and surpassed New England by 1900 by having 400 mills.
This family founded the American Tobacco Company near Durham, NC after cornering the market by advertising and underselling competitors, which gave in and came together to make the company. In 1911 the company was broken up by the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. A prominent US university bears this family's name.
This industry by 1900 had surpassed textiles in value in Southern production.
Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company
This company based in Hampton Roads became the largest ship building company in the country, increasing the South's industrial capability.
Unlike new Southern industries, this one floundered as the prices of its products dropped significantly over thew final 33 years of the nineteenth century.
An ownership interest in land in which a lessee or a tenant holds real property by some form of title from a lesser or landlord. Many Americans lived with this system in place (agriculturally). Many farmers became bankrupt under Tenancy due to its in-efficiency and prevent wide land ownership in the South.
System that allowed farmers to get more credit as the South after the Civil War had a currency deficiency. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans, which meant every year they needed to grow a cash crop, even multiple times a year with phosphorus fertilizers, destroying the soil.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the South by taking back southern state governments and developing Southern industry to free the South of northern dependancy.
This Southern group opposed the Redeemers and attempted to ignore the Civil War and continue the traditions of the old South, and although they never united did own the South over the redeemers. They were able to keep power by an alliance with northern capitalists, cutting the budget on everything and repudiating the debt. They cut thing including the Freedmen's Bureau school and they also gave tax cuts to big business. They also used convict leasing which was opposed by many as their were many Southern convicts under federally imposed state laws and no prisons to house them in.
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States beginning 1880 but in earnest in 1892 with the Populist revolution. They included a complete re-writing of radical constitutions of the 1860's by 8 states, literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited poor and black voting rights.
The political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite. It was a farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892, and a party separate from the Bourbons in the South that blacks were attracted too and gaining power in. As a result around 1892 the Bourbons enacted racist laws.
Plessy vs Ferguson
A case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal" and done by individuals and not the state.
Due to segregation, the black communities of the South had to become self sufficient, meaning that some blacks started to become this type of worker and became economically well off. In this manner, the blacks gained a foothold economically that they had not had before due to the fact that they were landless before the Civil War.
National Association of Coloured Women
An independent affiliation modeled after white counterparts, but this organization took positions on issues of particular concern to blacks (crusading against lynching, and called for congressional legislation to make lynching a federal crime). Its first president was Mary Church Terrell.
Ida B Wells
The lynching of blacks outraged her after three of her friends were killed by a lynching. She was an African american journalist. In her newspaper, Free Speech, Wells urged African Americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores, which she had fought to the Supreme Court, winning at every level but the highest.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP); Founded by W.E.B Du Bois in 1909 in order to help create more social and economic opportunities for blacks.
Booker T Washington
Half-African American progressive who supported segregation, he attended the Hampton Institute and founded an all black college at Tuskegee, Alabama. He demanded that African American better themselves economically before moving on to achieve social equality.
W. E. B. Du Bois
This man fought for African American rights, and while believing strongly in education, fought mainly for social education rather than vocational schools. He helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP ion 1909.
The Great American Desert
Myth created by Zebulon Pike, who explored western parts of US, about the Great Plains as nothing more than desert of possibilities (nothing's going to grow). He was proven wrong as cattle migrated from Texas into the Great Basin while Californians followed the mines to the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada's. Finally the transcontinental railroad propelled upper midwestern farmers in the present grain-belt to move west into more hostile but more plentiful lands.
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to the Midwest, mainly Kansas, after the fall of Republican governments in the early 1870's. About 25,000 came to Kansas in 1879-80 combined. So many came that in 1879 whites closed river boating to blacks, which Hayes prevented by military action. This threat, however, slowed these people, and they would eventually quit coming by 1885 as they heard of different hardships of the barren Midwest.
Benjamin "Pap" Singleton
African American man who promoted the migration of other African Americans from the South, which he had escaped as a slave, to his community in Dunlop, Kansas.
This state, after the discovering of gold Pikes Peak, Central City, and Leadville, established a healthy economy of mining and agriculture, with fertile river valleys coming out of the rockies and entered the union in 1876, fifteen years before Cripple Creek gold was discovered.
This state became a territory in 1861, two years after the greatest gold and silver find, the Comstock load, in American history was found. This states was the only states to become a territory and a state during the Civil War, entering the union in 1864.
After the party swept the 1888 elections, it finally broke the divide in congress over territories, who were overwhelmingly filled with this party, becoming states. 1889 was the first year since 1864 to admit a new state, and admitted four: The Dakota's, Montana, and Washington. They followed this states with Idaho and Wyoming in 1889. Utah entered the Union in 1896 after abandoning polygamy, and Oklahoma, Arizona, and New Mexico rounded out the lower 48 by 1912.
This association was formed in 1878 by farmers in California's central valley to form a militia to protect farmers from belligerent mining companies. In 1884 this association turned to the courts, where it won the case Woodruff v North Bloodmfield Gravel Mining Company that stated that the dumping of mining debris where it could reach farmlands or navigable rivers was illegal. Hydraulic mining ended after the ruling.
This fort was notable as the staging post used by Colonel John Chivington in 1864 as he led an attack by the Third Colorado Cavalry and other forces on friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho camps that became known as the Sand Creek Massacre. As witnesses and survivors emerged, the US Congress investigated, with a resulting national wave of public outrage about the slaughter and mutilation of up to 163 people, primarily women, children, and the elderly.
Indian Peace Commission
established in 1867 by Congress, it composed of both soldiers and civilians, to recommend a new and presumably permanent Indian policy. The commission recommended that the government move all the Plains tribes into two large reservations, one in Oklahoma for the remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes, and the other in the Dakotas. This was cheaper then fighting them.
Red River War
U.S military campaign created to rid the Southern plains of Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho in 1874-75.
Great Sioux War
In 1874, Lieutenant Colonel Custard led an exploratory expedition into the Black Hills, which the US government had promised to the Sioux Indians. Miners soon followed and the army did nothing to keep them out. Eventually, the army attacked the Sioux Indians and the fight against them lasted fifteen months before the Sioux Indians were forced to give up their land and move onto a reservation.
Battle of Little Bighorn
Battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans where Custer and his 210 troops were annihilated (1876).
Battle of Wounded Knee
US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890 dancing the Ghost Dance of Wovoka. This ended the Indian Wars.
Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans inlcuded A Century of Dishonor (1830-1885).
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
Sponsored by Senator Henry L Dawes, this act dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men.
Burke Act of 1906
Granted full citizenship to any Indian who took up life apart from their tribes in another effort to "Americanize" Indians.
In 1901 all members of the Five Civilized Tribes were offered citizenship. However, all Indians were only offered citizenship in this year
In 1867 Joseph McCoy of Illinois established this town as the first sucessful cowtown where livestock would be herded and then sold and shipped east. The Cowtowns progressively moved westword and north as the railroads moved west.
This man founded a meat-packing empire in the Midwest during the late 19th century, over which he presided until his death. He is credited with the development of the first practical ice-cooled railroad car which allowed his company to ship dressed meats to all parts of the country and even abroad, instead of shipping the cattle which often died, which ushered in the "era of cheap beef."
Invented barbed wire, which allowed for the production of ranches, especially cattle ranches. For the first time in history, the Midwest could have property boundaries of fences like in the east.
Newlands Reclamation Act
1902 Act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states. It founded the Bureau of Reclamation.
Invented the chilled iron plow that was able to break the midwestern sod
Homestead Act of 1862
This allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30.
This system was not practically for the cattle farming of the plains, and so large companies or very large ranchers ruled the Midwest as smaller ranchers literally couldn't survive.
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