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A tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations (p. 20).
To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings (p. 19).
A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends (p. 19).
A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured (p. 18).
A mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance (p. 18).
A factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured and verified. (p. 17).
The active process of minimizing preconceptions and biases while evaluating evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations for research findings or other phenomena. (p. 17).
A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions. (p. 16).
(high-POTH-eh-sis) A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or question (p. 16).
Verifiable evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation (p. 16).
Medical specialty area focused on the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders (p. 15).
The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures. (pp. 13, 471).
Branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior and mental processes (p. 13).
The attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to another (p. 13).
Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual (p. 13).
Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group (p. 13).
The application of principles of evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena (p. 12).
The study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communities (p. 11).
The theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development (pp. 9, 433).
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the scientific study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning (pp. 8, 190).
A type of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts (pp. 7, 420, 582)
Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose, or function of behavior and mental experiences (p. 5).
Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the most basic components, or structures, or conscious experiences (p. 4).
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the body's structures and tissues using electromagnetic signals generated by the body in response to magnetic fields (p. 34).
positron emission tomography (PET scan)
An invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug (p. 34).
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels (p. 34).
A study investigating the effects of a naturally occurring event on the research participants (p. 32).
control group or control condition
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared (p. 30).
Any change that can be directly attributed to the independent or treatment variable after controlling for other possible influences (p. 29).
The process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study (p. 28).
An experimental control In which neither the participants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned (p. 28).
In a research study, subtle cues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is expected from the participant (p. 28).
Any change attributed to a person's beliefs and expectations rather than an actual drug, treatment, or procedure; also called expectancy effect (p. 28).
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment, also called the treatment variable (p. 27).
A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor (p. 27).
A factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled could affect the outcome of an experiment, also called a confounding variable (p. 27).
experimental group or experimental condition
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable (p. 27).
The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment, thought to be influenced by the independent variable; also called the outcome variable (p. 27).
A research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other (p. 25).
A selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics' (p. 24).
A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group (p. 24).
Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study (p. 4).
A fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence (p. 22).
The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting (p. 21).
descriptive research methods
Scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events (p. 21).
Branch of psychology that studies the behavior or different animal species (p. 36).
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
German physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879 (p. 4).
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes (p. 8).
Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)
American psychologist who was the first woman to earn a doctorate in psychology in the United States; published research on mental processes in animals (p. 6).
Edward B. Titchener (1867-1927)
British-born American psychologist who founded structuralism, the first school of psychology (p. 4).
Francis C. Sumner (1895-1954)
American psychologist who was the first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology in the United States; chaired Howard University psychology department (p. 6).
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
American psychologist and leading proponent of behaviorism; developed a model of learning called operant conditioning, discussed in Chapter 5; emphasized studying the relationship between environmental factors and observable behavior (p. 8).
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
American psychologist who founded the school of humanistic psychology (p. 9).
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Russian physiologist whose pioneering research on learning contributed to the development of behaviorism; discovered the basic learning process that is now called classical conditioning, discussed in Chapter 5 (p. 8).
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
American humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation (p. 9).
William James (1842-1910)
American philosopher and psychologist who founded psychology in the United States and established the psychological school called functionalism (p. 5).
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
American psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States; founded the American Psychological Association (p. 6).
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in "On the Origin of Species" in 1859 (p. 5).
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