What three steps are basic to all our sensory systems?
1. Receive sensory stimulation, often using specialized receptor cells
2. Transform that stimulation into neural impulses
3. Deliver the neural information to your brain
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system take in stimulus energies from our environment.
The process by which our brain organizes and interupts sensory information, transforming it into meaningful objects and events.
Changing one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive or remember objects or events in certain ways.
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticable difference (or jnd).
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum proportion (rather than a constant amount).
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
The amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye; contains the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, an gray; necessary for peripheral and twiligh vision, when cones don't respond.
Retinal receptor cells that are concetrated near the center of the retina; in daylight or well-lit conditions, cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; this part of the retina is "blind" because it has no receptor cells.
Nerve cell in the brain that responds to specific features of a stimulus, such as edges, lines, and angles.
The processing of many aspects of a problem or scene at the same time; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
The ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
A binocular cue for perceiving depth. By comparing images from the two eyes, the brain computes distance-the greater th disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
A depth cue, such as interposition or linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent color, brightness, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters th wavelenghs reflected by the object.
In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses.
A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.