Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4 Vocabulary
the increasing interdependence of citizens and nations across the world
the legitimate use of force to control human behavior; also the organization or agency authorized to exercise that force
national sovereignty
a political entity's externally recognized right to exercise final authority over its own affairs
established ways of social behavior and the oldest purpose of the government
the belief that states should leave individuals free to follow their individual pursuits
a political system in which, in theory, ownership of all land and productive facilities is in the hands of the people, and all goods are equally shared. The production and distribution of goods are controlled by an authoritarian government
public goods
benefits and services, such as parks and sanitation, that benefit all citizens but are not likely to be produced voluntarily by individuals
freedom of
an absence of constraints on behavior
freedom from
immunity (synonym equality)
police power
the authority of a government to maintain order and safeguard citizens' health, morals, safety, and welfare
political equality
equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally
social equality
equality in wealth, education, and status
equality of opportunity
the idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life
equality of outcome
the concept that society must ensure that people are equal,and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved
the benefits of government to which every citizen is entitled
political ideology
a consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government
a political philosophy that advocates unlimited power for the government to enable it to control all sectors of society
a form of rule in which the central government pays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity
democratic socialism
a socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberties such as freedom of speech and religion. citizens determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties
the system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned businesses operating without the government regulation)
a political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property
those who are opposed to using government to promote either order or equality
an economic doctrine that opposes any form of government intervention in business
a political philosophy that opposes government in any form
those who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality
those who are willing to use government to promote equality but not order
those who are willing to use government to promote both order and equality
a system of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of one individual
a system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few people
a system of government in which in theory, the people rule, either directly or indirectly
procedural democratic theory
a view of democracy as being embodied in a decision-making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule, and responsiveness
universal participation
the concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making
political equality
equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally
majority rule
the principle, basic to procedural democracy, that the decision of a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating-a simple majority
participatory democracy
a system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf
representative democracy
a system of government where citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf
a decision-making principle, necessitated by representative government, that implies that elected reps should do what the majority of people wants
substantive democratic theory
the view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policy making procedure
minority rights
the benefits of government that cannot be denied to any citizen by majority decisions
majoritarian model of democracy
the classical theory of democracy in which government by the people is interpreted as government by the majority of the people
interest group
an organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy (synonym lobby)
pluralist model of democracy
an interpretation of democracy in which government by the people is taken to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups
elite theory
the view that a small group of people actually makes most of the important government decisions
a process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one
Declaration of Independence
doc by Thomas Jefferson that proclaimed the right of colonies to separate from Great Britain.
social contract theory
the belief that the people agree to set up rulers for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers who act against those purposes
a government without a monarch; a government rooted in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected reps responsible to the governed
a loose association of independent states that agree to cooperate on specified matters
Articles of Confederation
the compact among the 13 original states that established the first government of the US
Virginia Plan
A set of proposals for a new government, submitted to Constitutional Congress 1787; included separation of government into 3 branches, division of legislature into 2 houses, and proportional representation in legislature
legislative branch
law-making branch of government
executive branch
law-enforcing branch of government
judicial branch
law-interpreting branch of government
New Jersey Plan
Submitted by head of the NJ delegation to Constitutional Convention 1787, a set of 9 resolutions that would have, in effect, preserved the Articles of Confederation by amending rather than replacing them
Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise
submitted by Connecticut delegation to Constitutional Convention 1787, a plan for bicameral legislature in which House of Reps would be apportioned according to pop. and the states would be represented equally in Senate
electoral college
a body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and VP
extraordinary majority
a majority greater than the minimum of 50 percent plus 1
a form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected reps
the division of power between a central government and regional governments
separation of powers
the assignment of lawmaking, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting functions to sep branches of gov't
checks and balances
a gov't structure that gives each branch some scrutiny of and control over the other branches
enumerated powers
the powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution
necessary and proper clause
(elastic clause) gives Congress means to execute its enumerated powers=basis for Congress's implied powers
implied powers
those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers
judicial review
the power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid because they violate the Constitution
supremacy clause
clause in Article VI of Constitution that asserts that national laws take precedence over state and local laws when they conflict
Bill of Rights
the 1st 10 amendments to the Constitution. They prevent the national gov't from tampering with fundamental rights and civil liberties, and emphasize the limited characters of national powers
the quality of being supreme in power or authority
the division of power between a central government and regional governments
dual federalism
a view that holds that the Constitution is a compact among sovereign states, so that the powers of the national gov't and the states are clearly differentiated
states' rights
the idea that all rights not specifically conferred on the national gov't by the US Constitution are reserved to the states
implied powers
those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers
cooperative federalism
a view that holds that the Constitution is an agreement among people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is much overlap between state powers and national powers
elastic clause
the last clause of Sect 8 Art. I of the Constitution which gives Congress the means to execute its enumerated powers. This clause is the basis for Congress's implied powers. Also called the necessary and proper clause
commerce clause
the 3rd clause of Art I of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states
money provided by one level of gov't to another to be spent for a given purpose
categorical grants
grants-in-aid targeted for a specific purpose by either formula or project
formula grants
categorical grants distributed according to a particular set of rules, called a formula, that specify who is eligible for the grants and how much each eligible applicant will receive
project grants
categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications submitted by prospective recipients to perform a specific task or function
block grants
grants-in-aid awarded for general purposes, allowing the recipient great discretion in spending the grant money
policy entrepreneurs
citizens, members of interest groups, or public officials who champion particular policy ideas
the power of Congress to enact laws by which the national gov't assumes total or partial responsibility for a state gov't function
a requirement that a state undertake an activity or provide a service, in keeping with minimum national standards
a requirement laid down by act of Congress, prohibiting a state or local gov't from exercising a certain power
coercive federalism
a view that the national gov't may impose its policy preferences on the states through regulations in the form of mandates and restraints
the process of redrawing political boundaries to reflect changes in population
municipal governments
the gov't units that administer a city or a town
county governments
the gov't units that administer a county
school district
the gov't units that administer elementary and secondary school programs
special districts
gov't units created to perform particular functions, especially when those functions are best performed across jurisdictional boundaries
home rule
the right to enact and enforce legislation locally