26 terms

Comm Final ch 15

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Terms in this set (...)

ethos
a speaker's trustworthiness and moral character
pathos
listener's emotions
logos
listener's ability to reason
inductive reasoning
type of reasoning when one considers evidence and then draws conclusions
deductive reasoning
a type of reasoning when one starts with general conclusions and uses it to explain specific cases
syllogism
3 step statement including a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
appeals
fear, guilt, sadness, anger, joy, shame, disgust
proposition of fact
a claim that a specific argument is supported by the best possible evidence and therefore should be accepted
proposition of policy
a claim about what should be done
proposition of value
a claim that evaluates the worth of a person, an object, or an idea
problem-solving pattern
a way of organizing a persuasive speech in which the speaker establishes the existence of a problem and then proposes a solution to it
refutational approach
a way of organizing a persuasive speech in which the speaker begins by presenting the main arguments and then immediately refutes those arguments
comparative advantage method
a way of organizing a persuasive speech when a speaker explains why his or her point of view is superior to others on the same topic
Monroe's motivated sequence
a way of organizing a persuasive speech consisting of appeals to attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and then action
logical fallacy
a line of reasoning that, even if it makes sense, does not genuinely support a speaker's point
ad hominem fallacy
a statement that attempts to counter an argument by criticizing the person who made it
slippery slope fallacy
a statement that attacks an argument by taking it to such an extreme that it appears ludicrous
either-or fallacy
a statement that identifies two alternatives and falsely suggests that if we reject one, we must accept the other
false-cause fallacy
a statement asserting that if a an event occurs before an outcome, it is considered the cause of that outcome
bandwagon appeal
a claim that a listener should believe or support an argument because of the amount of people that support it
hasty generalization
a broad claim based on insufficient evidence
red herring fallacy
a statement that responds to an argument by introducing an irrelevant issue that diverts attention from the main topic
straw man fallacy
a statement that refutes a claim that was never made
begging the question
supporting an argument using the argument itself as evidence
appeal to false authority
a claim that uses a testimony of someone who isn't an expert as evidence
ways to hone your persuasive speaking skills
adapt to audience, build rapport with listeners, establish credibility
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