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Half-Way Convenant gathered more church membership and changed from the old "covenant" which was the agreement between the Church and its supporters to admit to baptism. Unlike the told convenant, this new covenant weakened the distinction between the elect and the others and the spiritual purity of original settlers' godly community. This was significant because it reflected the difficulty of maintaining the religious devotion of the founding generations. However, it widen the religious participation; many women participated in the church.
Royal African Company
Royal African Company was first chartered in 1672. Later in 1698, however, it lost its crown-granted monopoly on carrying slaves to the colonies. This incident is very significant because this led to the shipping of many Africans. Also it made slavery and the act of transporting Africans around a very popular industry during this period.
Nathaniel Bacon led landless frontiersmen to rebellion when Berkley refused to fight back against Indian attacks on frontier settlements. Bacon and his followers murdered the Indians and burn the capital. However, it ended when Bacon suddenly died and Berkley crushed the uprising and hung more than 20 rebels. However, this event triggered the smoldering resentments of landless former servants.
Leisler's Rebellion happened in New York City. It was between landholders and merchants. Jacob Leisler led this rebellion and gained control of lower colonial New York. This rebellion was very significant because it established resentment against British domination and increased tension between colonists and the British.
Salem Witch Trials
The witch trials started when some teenage girls acted hysterically and blamed other old women for bewitching them. This led to the legal execution of twenty women. It started from superstition, prejudices, and wars with the Indians. Most of the witches came from families associated with Salem's market economy who owned land while the accusers were from families related to subsistence farming. This proves the increasing social stratification of New England. It also shows the fear of many religious traditionalists that the Puritan heritage was being blocked by Yankee commercialism.
Poor Richard's Almanack
It was a publication full of short sayings from thinkers of all ages which emphasized homespun virtues such as thrift, industry, morality, and common sense. It also became famous in Europe and in America. Franklin played an important role in influencing American character and it was an example of a unique "American" culture.
Parliament passed this act in order to stop North American trade with the French West Indies. It was supposed to paralyze American international trade and the colonists' standard of living. However, American merchants responded to this act by bribing and smuggling. This event is very significant in that it foreshadowed the future revolt of Americans against the rules of Parliament.
Great Awakening was a religious revival that occurred during the 1730s and 1740s. It began in Northampton, MA by Jonathan Edwards. This event is significant in that it undermined the stature of the clergy in the colonies, split colonial churches into several competing sect, led to the founding of Princeton, Darthmouth, and Rutgers colleges, and was the first spontaneous mass movements of the American.
John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, attacked the corrupt royal governor through his articles. This caused Zenger to be charged for libel. He was brought to court for a trial. His defender Andrew Hamilton and Zenger argued that he simply printed the truth, but the justice told the jury to find Zenger guilty. However, the jury resisted and found Zenger not guilty of libel. This event is significant in that it shows the give-and-take of politics in the middle colonies (where so many different ethnic groups conflicted with one another). It also showed the achievement of freedom of press and sense of democracy. It allowed open public discussion for diverse society. It also helped to establish the doctrine which stated that public officials could not be prosecuted as libel and as a result, newspapers became free to print criticisms.
Stono Rebellion was a South Carolina slave revolt. Many blacks along the Stono River attempted to march to Spanish Florida. However, they had to stop because of the local militia. This is significant because it proved that enslaved Africans was a more tightly controlled labor force than the white indentured servants whom they gradually replaced.
The Irish led the march of the Paxton Boys on Philadelphia which was the act of protest against the Quaker oligarchy's lenient policy toward the Indians. This is significant because it shows how the Irish did not care about the British government or any other government. They also raided Native American camps.
The Irish in North Carolina led a rebellion against eastern domination of the colony's affairs. This is very significant because it shows how the Irish had no respect for the British government. Many of the people who participated in this movement later participated in the American Revolution as well.
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