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54 terms

Anatomy Physiology of the heart

The heart and its parts.
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mediastinum
The space between the lungs in the middle of the chest where the heart lies.
pericardium
A double-layered membrane that surrounds the heart.
great vessels
Pulmonary arteries and veins, aorta, superior and inferior vena cavae.
base of the heart
The heart's upper portion. It lies at about the level of the second rib.
heart's apex
The lower portion of the heart formed by the tip of the left ventricle. It lies just above the diaphragm.
atria
The two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood.
right atrium
Receives blood that is low in oxygen.
left atrium
Receives freshly oxygenated blood.
superior vena cava
Carries blood to the right atrium from the head and upper extremities.
inferior vena cava
Carries blood to the right atrium from the lower body.
coronary sinus
The largest vein that drains the heart into the right atrium.
right and left pulmonary veins
Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
ventricles
The two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood.
right ventricle
Pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs via the left and right pulmonary arteries.
left ventricle
Pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta and it's branches.
Apical impulse
Impulse that can be felt at the apex of the heart when the left ventricle contracts.
sulci
Grooves on the outside surface of the heart.
coronary sulcus
A groove that encircles the outside of the heart and separates the atria from the ventricles.
septum
An internal wall separating the right and left sides of the heart.
interatrial septum
Separates the right and left atria.
interventricular septum
Separates the right and left ventricles.
Pulmonary circulation
Circulation from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart.
Systemic circulation
Circulation of oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the body and back to the right side of the heart.
Atrial kick
Additional contribution of blood (30%) because of atrial contraction.
Stroke volume
The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle with each heartbeat.
Ejection fraction
The percentage of blood pumped out of a heart chamber with each contraction.
endocardium
A thin smooth layer of epithelium and connective tissue that lines the hearts inner chamber.
myocardium
A thin muscular layer that consists of cardiac muscle fibers responsible for the pumping action of the heart.
epicardium
External layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium.
Ischemia
A decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
pericardium
A double walled sac that encloses the heart and helps protect it from trauma and infection.
Fibrous parietal pericardium
The rough outer layer of the pericardial sac.
serous pericardium
Two layers that make up the inner layer of the pericardium.(perietal and visceral)
perietal layer
Lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium.
visceral layer
Adheres to the outside of the heart and forms the outer layer of the heart muscle also called the epicardium.
pericardial space
The space between the perital and visceral layers that normally contains 20 mL of serous fluid.
Pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium.
Cardiac output
The amount of blood the ventricles can pump to the body
Pericardiocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart.
Sarcolemma
Membrane that encloses each muscle cell.
Mitochondria
The energy producing part of a cell.
Myofibrils
Thread-like structures which have a contractile function
Transverse tubules
Channels perpendicular to myofibrils that extend through fiber
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Stores and releases calcium into sarcoplasm after nervous stimulation
atrioventricular valves
Separate the atria from the ventricles
tricuspid valve
The AV valve that lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
mitral or bicuspid valve
The AV valve that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Systole
contraction phase of the heartbeat
Diastole
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
chordae tendineae
the tendonlike, fibrous cords that connect the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles of the ventricles
papillary muscles
responsible for pulling the atrioventricular valves closed by means of the chordae tendineae
semilunar valves
Separate the ventricles from arteries. Right sided pulmonic, left sided aortic. Open during systole to allow blood to be ejected from the heart.
pulmonic valve
Separates right ventricle and pulmonary artery
aortic valve
located between the left ventricle and the aorta