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the self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations.

Wilhelm Wundt

launched first psychological lab

Edward Tichener

Introduced Structuralism. Used self-reflective introspection for subjects to report minute details of their perception and experience. Alas, introspection is too subjective and didn't last as a scientific technique and as it waned so to did structuralism as a theory.

William James

(influenced by Charles Darwin) thinking like smelling developed because it was adaptive (people who have it are selected to more likely to have children, than people who don't have it). Consciousness too must serve a function, it enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present circumstances and plan our future. "Principles of Psychology", published 1878 -- great book! Quite a character in his time and very eccentric. Explored streams of consciousness.


encourage exploration of down to earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness.

Mary Calkins

student of James, never granted degree, later president of APA, 1905

Mary Floy Washburn

first woman Ph.D. in Psychology, also an APA president, 1921. Much bias against women in those days.

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist, pioneered the study of learning. Studied involuntary learning behavior. Dogs salivate when saw lab tech.

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician, developed influential theory of personality, emotional responses to childhood experiences and unconscious thought process and their affect on behavior.

Jean Piaget

Swiss biologist, developmental learning theory

John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner

dismissed introspections and redefined psych as the "scientific study of human behavior".---- note shift from internal subjective reporting to external observable behavior.


is the science of behavior and mental processes


is the process of using research by using the hypothetical deductive model.


Science is rooted in the observable

Humanistic psychology

Rebelled against Freudian psychology and behaviorism

Carl Rogers; Abraham Maslow

found behaviorism too mechanical, focusing only on learned behaviors. Rather than focusing on the meaning of early childhood memories the humanistic psychologists emphasized the importance of current environment influences on our growth potential and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.

humanistic psychologists

emphasized the importance of current environment influences on our growth potential and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied

Cognitive Neuroscience

the study of brain activity linked with mental activity


anything an organism does

Mental processes

are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior--sensations, perceptions, dreams, thought, beliefs, and feelings.

Nature-Nurture Issue

the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience.


assumed that character and intelligence are largely inherited and that certain ideas are inborn.


countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses.

John Locke

rejected the idea of inborn ideas suggesting that the mind is a blank slate (tabla rosa) on which experience writes.

Rene Descartes

believed that some ideas are innate

Charles Darwin

On the Origin of Species... voyage of the Beagle (begun in 1831) 22 year journey to collect biological specimens, proposed the evolutionary process of natural selection

natural selection

From among chance variations, nature selects the traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.

biological, psychological, social-cultural

Psych's three main levels of Analysis (influences)


focuses on active psychological process rather than on passive psychological structures or elements.

1879 Wilhelm Wundt

When and who is credited with beginning modern psychology?


is a theoretical outlook that emphasizes the idea that psychology should be scrupulously objective: it should focus only on the relationship between observable behavior, on the one hand, and environmental events or stimuli, on the other.


encourage explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to moment steams of consciousness.

John Watson

Any behavior can be shaped and controlled.


Unlike Watson, was not an S-R psychologist. He distinguished between Respondent behavior, involuntary, and Operant Behavior is largely voluntary. Probability of an operant behavior can be increased by providing a reinforcement.


emphasizes the importance of thought as a basis for understanding much of human behavior.

Psychodynamic theory

emphasizes the importance of conflicting unconscious mental processes. (Freud)

Evolutionary Psychology

explains behavior in terms of organisms' evolved adaptations to a constantly changing environmental landscape. Natural selection in behaviors by gender, for example

Humanistic psychology

emphasizes free will and the importance of human potential as well as holistic rather than analytic approaches to psychological phenomena. It also emphasizes conscious experience in personal development rather than unconscious experience.

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