the self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations.
Introduced Structuralism. Used self-reflective introspection for subjects to report minute details of their perception and experience. Alas, introspection is too subjective and didn't last as a scientific technique and as it waned so to did structuralism as a theory.
(influenced by Charles Darwin) thinking like smelling developed because it was adaptive (people who have it are selected to more likely to have children, than people who don't have it). Consciousness too must serve a function, it enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present circumstances and plan our future. "Principles of Psychology", published 1878 -- great book! Quite a character in his time and very eccentric. Explored streams of consciousness.
encourage exploration of down to earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness.
Mary Floy Washburn
first woman Ph.D. in Psychology, also an APA president, 1921. Much bias against women in those days.
Russian physiologist, pioneered the study of learning. Studied involuntary learning behavior. Dogs salivate when saw lab tech.
Austrian physician, developed influential theory of personality, emotional responses to childhood experiences and unconscious thought process and their affect on behavior.
John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner
dismissed introspections and redefined psych as the "scientific study of human behavior".---- note shift from internal subjective reporting to external observable behavior.
Carl Rogers; Abraham Maslow
found behaviorism too mechanical, focusing only on learned behaviors. Rather than focusing on the meaning of early childhood memories the humanistic psychologists emphasized the importance of current environment influences on our growth potential and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.
emphasized the importance of current environment influences on our growth potential and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied
are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior--sensations, perceptions, dreams, thought, beliefs, and feelings.
assumed that character and intelligence are largely inherited and that certain ideas are inborn.
countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses.
rejected the idea of inborn ideas suggesting that the mind is a blank slate (tabla rosa) on which experience writes.
On the Origin of Species... voyage of the Beagle (begun in 1831) 22 year journey to collect biological specimens, proposed the evolutionary process of natural selection
From among chance variations, nature selects the traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
focuses on active psychological process rather than on passive psychological structures or elements.
is a theoretical outlook that emphasizes the idea that psychology should be scrupulously objective: it should focus only on the relationship between observable behavior, on the one hand, and environmental events or stimuli, on the other.
encourage explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to moment steams of consciousness.
Unlike Watson, was not an S-R psychologist. He distinguished between Respondent behavior, involuntary, and Operant Behavior is largely voluntary. Probability of an operant behavior can be increased by providing a reinforcement.
emphasizes the importance of thought as a basis for understanding much of human behavior.
explains behavior in terms of organisms' evolved adaptations to a constantly changing environmental landscape. Natural selection in behaviors by gender, for example