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APHG - Unit 2 Review
Terms in this set (118)
What was the Neolithic Revolution?
first agricultural revolution where domestication of livestock and agriculture led to the replacement of nomads & hunter-gatherer practices in the Stone Age about 12,000 years ago
What does "neolithic" mean?
How was the rate of growth in the world from 10,000 BCE to 1750 AD?
slow but steady growth (with the exception of the plagues in the 1300s)
What did the Neolithic Revolution eventually lead to?
the first urban revolution where people started to settle permanently (first one started by Cetel Hüyük)
What was the second agricultural revolution?
discovery of better tools and techniques where people figured out how to increase productivity (more food = more people)
- technology, crop rotation, seed selection
What are the four main hearths of civilization? What is the reason for these locations?
Nile, Huang-He, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus and Ganges
- annual river flood revives soil so that a plant can be planted over and over again at the same location (instead of moving acres)
What was the Industrial Revolution?
automation of items to increase power in the 1700-1800s following the second agricultural revolution
- led to a constant population rate
What was the second urban revolution?
when people started to swarm into cities to find jobs instead of living in the countryside due to automation in the Industrial Revolution
Who was Thomas Malthus?
Englishman who wrote an essay on the principles of population listing that population grows exponentially and food production grows linearly (arithmetically)
- after watching birth rates in Britain skyrocket & Britain deporting people to other parts of the world to reduce problems and crimes
- stated world would be in a crisis if we could not keep up food source with population
What happened in the 1300s that greatly influenced Earth's population?
Black Death that killed 1/3 of Earth's population
How are the life expectancies today and in the 2010s?
higher at places with access to medical resources (Canada and U.S. rather than Africa)
What is arithmetic density?
dividing country's population by total land area (people/km²)
- was not good with visualizing how packed a country was in a certain location
What is physiologic density?
dividing country's population by total arable farmland (people/km² per farmland)
- arable land only consists of actual farmland, not land that can be farmed on
- gets a better sense of how squeezed in a population is since no one lives on farmland (Egypt has 2,344.96 p/km² of farmland because it is packed near the Nile but has 85 p/km²)
What is agricultural density?
dividing number of farmers by area of arable farmland
What is the demographic equation?
future population = current population + births - deaths + immigrants - emigrants
What is Crude Birth Rate (CBR)?
babies born per year/1000 people in a population
What is Crude Death Rate (CDR)?
deaths per year/1000 people in a population
Why is CBR and CDR measured per 1000 people in a population?
to get whole numbers (100 would leave us with decimals)
What is the Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)?
difference between CBR and CDR divided by 10 (measured in percentages)
Find the RNI and estimated population in a year for Ireland:
Population: 5.2 million
RNI = 0.6%
estimated population = 5,231,200
What is the Total Fertility Rate (TFR)?
number of children a woman is expected to have in lifetime based on fertility rates
- should be 2.0 to have a stable population (2 children to replace 2 parents)
What is the Replacement Level of Fertility?
TFR of 2.1-2.3 for zero-population growth (use 2.1 for basis)
- decimal accounts for children who do not make it
What is described as a high CBR? What continent has a high CBR and when does the CBR tend to rise?
upper 30s and above
- Africa has a high CBR
- CBR tends to go up as more danger happens
What is described as a manageable CBR?
What is Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)?
deaths before 1 year per 1000 live births
- due to things such as bad physical health, conditions, sanitization, poverty, and smoking of mothers
- ranges from as low as 1.8 to as high as 180
- can vary based on region, ethnicity, social class, or other criteria
What is Child Mortality Rate (CMR)?
deaths between 1-5 year old children
What is newborn death rate?
deaths of children in their first month of life
- mainly due to premature births and low-birth-weight babies
High birth rates and high crude mortality rates usually are...
correlated (more babies in places where there are high rates of IMR and CMR)
- exception of Russia: high mortality rate with a decreasing population
What is the Rate of Population Growth?
factoring in migration with RNI levels
What is doubling time?
amount of years it takes for a population to double
What is a good equation for
How does population grow?
exponentially (% per year)
What does "demographic" mean?
statistics on population
Why did the Demographic Transition Model start?
to figure out Britain's population growth during the Industrial Revolution (was growing linear before)
Describe stage 1 of the DTM.
- high CBR and high CDR with small RNI
- steady population growth
- high CDR due to the epidemics and plagues the world had for most of human history
Describe stage 2 of the DTM.
early Industrial Revolution
- high CBR and medium & declining CDR with big RNI
- population starts to rise up quickly
- running water and food led to less diseases and starvation
- more sanitization caused health to improve
Describe stage 3 of the DTM.
late Industrial Revolution
- medium & declining CBR and medium & declining CDR with big RNI
- population explosion that continues from stage 2
- global reach, transportation, refrigeration, and medicine is introduced
- CBR goes down by choice due to more urban areas & education systems and jobs in place for women (that pushes back birth time) — also was because families did not need many children to support them
Describe stage 4 of the DTM.
- small CBR and small CDR with a small RNI
- steady population growth
- wealthy begins to have less children
Describe stage 5 of the DTM.
in some countries
- bigger CDR than CBR with a negative RNI
- population begins to drop
- shown in countries such as Germany and Japan today
What does the population line look like on the DTM?
How do we manage to get a country's CBR, CDR, and population number?
- developed countries normally provide accurate statistics on CBR/CDR and population
- non-developed countries tend to lie on statistics to make them look bigger
- can estimate population of another country by using models and spies to find out the population of a certain place and duplicate number for similar areas (retrieving baptism or funeral information is also good)
What did Thomas Malthus say about population and food production?
population numbers that grow exponentially will eventually outbeat the linearly growing food production numbers, leaving the population declining
What is carrying capacity?
maximum amount of human beings that the planet can support
What was the third agricultural revolution?
- advances in biology and chemistry
- creation of GMOs and things that saved countries from reaching carrying capacity
genetically modified organisms (weed killers, RS-8) that saves us from starvation and increases food production (also called Frankenstein crops)
What is RS-8?
genetically modified rice that made a 5-fold increase per acre and saves India from starvation
How do we determine if Malthus was right?
need to figure out the population (CBR, CDR) per year globally and food production per year globally or through samples/representatives
What did Ester Boserup conclude about Malthus' theory?
revised version in 1960s explained that there was an increase in food production due to things like RS-8; Malthus forgot to account for globalization and transportation
What did Boserup argue about?
population growth stimulates societies to innovate and produce more food
What did Marxists argue about?
food is poorly distributed
What did Implosionists argue about?
lack of population will be a problem where jobs are unfilled
Who were the Explosionists?
What does the acronym BRICS stand for? What is the reason for this?
Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
- refers to the emerging economies of the world
What is a population pyramid?
a way of physically showing the demographic information of a country through age and gender
What is a cohort?
an age group counted in 5s (0-4, 5-9, 10-14)
How is a population pyramid structured?
- x-axis contained population display (can differ! always read — normally is in percentages or millions)
- y-axis contained cohorts
- left and right graphs contained genders (this can also differ! for example, it can display Australia's indigenous and non-indigenous population)
Define youth dependent.
bottom 3 cohorts ranging from ages 0-14
Define elderly dependent.
people 65 and up
Define the working age group.
people ages 15-64
Why do the youth dependent and elderly dependent sections contain "dependent" in them?
depend on the working age group to live and supply things such as healthcare (doctors, pharmacists)
Define dependency ratio.
taking either or both dependent groups and comparing it to the working age group
What is a youth bulge?
large number of non-working people (signs of poverty)
A population with lots of youth and a small number of elderly and working is growing...
rapidly and will become a source of migration for jobs
What are baby booms?
baby boom in U.S. and other countries years after WWII (1950s where there was prosperity) and shown on pyramids with general outlier cohorts
What is an echo or boomlet?
when the baby boom population has children (normally 1000 people born per year, boom of 2000, and then
those 2000 people have children
, which is the echo or boomlet)
What does stage 1 and early stage 2 look like on a population pyramid?
looks like an evergreen tree: high youth and low elderly
What does late stage 2 and early stage 3 look like on a population pyramid?
more steady population
What does stage 3 look like on a population pyramid?
slowly declining birth rate
What does stage 4 look like on a population pyramid?
looks like a lopsided vase: high working age group that moves upward
What does a decreasing population look like on a population pyramid?
high elderly, low youth
Pacific islands with an indigenous population and lots of tourism tend to have...
more of the working age group
Cohorts that have lived through wars (such as Russia in WWII) tend to have...
very small population levels
Besides birth and death, pyramids can also reflect...
migration into cities for jobs in the working age groups
Places with more children and less of the elderly tend to have a...
poor population (ex: Australia's indigenous population)
Originally, what did governments want to do concerning population policies? What happened?
increase number of babies due to other countries having a larger RNI and population up until the 20th century when carrying capacity hit and countries started to discourage children
What does the word "natal" mean?
Define anti-natalist policies.
discouraging births for a lower birth rate
Define pro-natalist policies.
encouraging births for a higher birth date
What do pro-natalist policies tend to encourage along with pregnancies?
What are some examples of how governments promote natalist policies?
granting money, punishments, propaganda, taxes, healthcare, education, other incentives
What is a regulatory approach?
government imposes regulations and restrictions for people through laws (also called coercive)
What is an incentive approach?
government offers things (prizes, money) to families that limit or expand the number of children they have (positive or negative)
What is a correlative/indirect approach?
actions that indirectly achieve or influence the desired effect (ex: raising the standard of living for less children or encouraging certain things)
Describe the brief history of China's population.
has had the world's largest population since forever; up until the mid-20th century, it was a mess with poverty and abuse by European countries after experiencing a demographic change at a historical level in the past 50 years
How has China reacted to its Industrial Revolution?
after emperor was over thrown and communism was put in (as a stage 1 country in a 3/4 world), China tried to push directly to stage 3 which led to mass starvation
What was the Great Leap Forward?
China's brute force push to industrialization
What led China to implement the one-child policy?
1970s when their population approached 1 billion and RNI continued to rise; implemented it to control population and to modernize the country
What approach did China use in the one-child policy?
- positive incentives: social recognition, vacations
- negative incentives: no education, money
- punishments for people who did not follow the policy as well
How did China handle the one-child policy and how was China affected by it?
started to become a totalitarian state where they were in control of everything as one-child policy began to give them a negative RNI
What was the problem the one-child policy gave China? What did this lead China to do?
- lots of more boys being kept and born than girls (due to bloodline)
- people began to hide other children
- started to have a lack of youth to fill jobs and places of the working age group that was slowly aging
led China to back away from the policy to improve human rights records and to balance out gender and age
What was the final outcome of the one-child policy?
policy was harsh, but it did the work and was successful (lowered CBR)
- led China to become advanced (tech, transportation, medical care)
What do demographers predict will happen between India and China?
India will catch up with China and become the country with the largest population by 2030
What are the 4 biggest population clusters?
China (East Asia), India (South Asia), northwestern Europe, northeastern U.S.
when two cities come near each other and create one big urban area
What is a megalopolis?
big urban area consisting of many cities with lots of people
What is Boswash?
megalopolis in U.S. ranging from Boston to D.C
Where to people tend to live?
urban areas where there is food and water (rivers)
a portion of the Earth's surface occupied by
What can prevent a population from spreading?
barriers such as mountains (Himalayas, Hindu Kush) and rivers (Mississippi River)
- can also block places from the rest of the world and make a certain region have a distinct culture that is different from their neighbors and other countries (India)
Where do most people live in terms of the hemispheres and latitudes?
Northern Hemisphere near mid-latitudes
Where do U.S. citizens mostly live?
east of the Mississippi River
What are other big population clusters?
Brazil and Indonesia
Describe a LDC (less developed country).
- high RNI, high CBR, low CDR
- high IMR, high TFR
- high youth dependency
- low life expectancy
- stages 2 & 3 (there are
countries in stage 1!)
Describe a MDC (more developed country).
- low CBR, low CDR, low RNI
- low IMR, low TFR
- low youth dependency
- high life expectancy
- majority in stage 4 but can also range to late stage 3
How does birth control affect population?
availability in developed countries makes it correlate with CBR (lower)
What is population distribution?
arrangement of people on Earth's surface and the pattern of human settlements represented in dot maps
What does a census do?
helps keep track of a population and helps state and local governments gain money and representation (especially in the U.S.)
Why is the world slowly falling under the replacement level?
family planning, open education, economic uncertainity
Define stationary population level.
when a place reaches zero population growth (revised periodically)
What places have high and low life expectancies?
- high: Japan (estimated 106 in 2300)
- low: tropical Subsaharian African countries due to AIDS and diseases (below 50)
What are infectious diseases? List the 2 types of infectious diseases.
diseases resulting from parasites duplicating themselves in the body
- vectored: carried by vector or parasite (mosquitos and malaria)
- nonvectored: transmitted by direct contact (HIV/AIDS)
What are chronic or degenerative diseases?
diseases concerning old age and longevity (heart disease, cancer, stroke)
What are genetic or inherited diseases?
diseases traced to your ancestry (lactose intolerance, diabetes, metabollic diseases)
Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic.
- endemic: spread over a small area
- epidemic: spread over a large region
- pandemic: global in scope
What does HIV and AIDS mean?
HIV is Human Immunodeficiency Virus that causes AIDS, which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
How has HIV, AIDS, and malaria affected the world?
- caused population chimneys on pyramids that reflected impact
- made many children take care of their relatives with AIDS & left many as orphans
- lowering down with new technology such as genetically engineered mosquitoes and treatments (and the way we alter earth's surface with our infrastructure)
What are expansive, eugenic, and restrictive population policies?
- expansive: encouraging families to raise RNI indirectly
- eugenic: favoring one racial or cultural sector of population over other (Nazis)
- restrictive: reducing RNI through various things (birth control, regulatory laws)
What is the me generation?
self-centered, financially dependent adults who are quick to marry, have high divorce rates, and have one child (blamed for one-child policy)
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