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A claim about what can be expected in nature, based on the premises of a theory or hypothesis
a statement about whether a theory or hypothesis should be accepted, modified or rejected, based on tests of predictions derived from it
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances. pure substances, each consisting only of atoms that have the same number of protons in their nucleus.
electron shell made of orbitals, each orbital holds 2 electrons, each shell can hold 4 orbitals.
Polymer, saccharide is the monomer. The most abundant biological molecule, used as structural materials, transportable packets of energy, and stored forms of energy. Three classes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
polymer, fatty acids are the monomer. Greasy of oily compounds, readily dissolve in one another, but not so in water. Certain lipids with fatty acid tail form the main reservoirs of stored energy, structural materials in cell membranes and surface coatings
polymer, amino acids are the monomer. most diverse of all biological molecules. connected by peptide bonds. amino acid sequence is unique for each kind of protein, cells build diverse proteins from a pool of only 20 amino acids
polymer, nucleotides are the monomer. Chains of units or single unit consist of 5-carbon sugar, one phosphate, and a nitrogen-containing base
lipids without fatty acid tail, cholesterol is a steroid, forms the precursor for sex hormones
form the structural elements of hair and nails (keratin) and bones and cartilage (collagen)
govern many cell activities like oxygen transport (hemoglobin in red blood cells), tissue defense (antibodies), increase in rate of reactions (enzymes), control of glucose metabolism (insulin)
Adenosine Triphosphate, energy currency of the cell. 3 phosphate groups that help in storage, transmission and translation of genetic information
Smallest unit that retains characteristics of life; all organisms are composed of one or more cells
everything enclosed by the plasma membrane except the nucleus. Includes membrane bound organelles and the endomembrane system
main function is protein synthesis; spherical, single membrane bodies; free or bound to ER
NOT organelles, motile structures that project from the surface of many cells and beat in distinct patterns (make cells move)
containing RNA and proteins; DNA and associated proteins in the form of chromatin
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes and extending from the nuclear envelope that helps with the synthesis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification. Rough ER: ribosomes attached; Smooth ER: ribosomes are free
organelle that modifies/secretes polypeptides and lipids, also sorts and packages the finished products into vesicles
enzyme filled vesicle that helps with intracellular digestion in the cell. "suicide capsule;" only found in animal cells.
two-membrane bound organelle, helps in cellular respiration; inner membrane is folded into finger like cristae and has matrix and produces ATP
consists of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. maintains cell shape and aids in cell division
an organelle found only in plants that functions in photosynthesis or storage. ex: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, thylakoids, grana and stroma
disposal site for metabolic by-products, pigments float around in sacs in vacuoles; helps with cell growth (vacuoles gain water: cell grows; vacuoles lose water: cell shrinks)
cellulose + lignin, comes later on in plant life; takes up cytoplasm and plasma membrane and the cell is somewhat dead
self-feeders, organisms that can make their own food, sometimes through photosynthesis (plants, algae, bacteria)
sensing and responding to the environment; maintenance of internal environment within range for suitable cell activities
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