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121 terms

BSC 1005

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Prokaryotes
no nucleus, bacteria is an example
Eukaryotes
has a nucleus
Archaea
Kingdom Archaebacteria, prokaryote
Bacteria
Kingdom Eubacteria, prokaryote
Eukarya
4 kingdoms, eukaryote
Kingdom Protista
algae, amoeba (autotrophs and heterotrophs)
Kingdom Fungi
mold, mushrooms (heterotrophs)
Kingdom Plantae
plants (autotrophs)
Kingdom Animalia
animals (autotrophs)
Species
a group of interbreeding individuals
Genus
includes 1 or more species
Family
includes genera
Order
includes many families
Class
includes all orders
Phylum/division
includes classes
Kingdom
includes phylum
Domain
includes kingdom (3 domains)
Biological Hierarchy
Drunk King Philip Came Over For Good Soup
Prediction
A claim about what can be expected in nature, based on the premises of a theory or hypothesis
Deductive reasoning
using a general idea to make a conclusion about a specific case
Test
an attempt to produce actual observations that match predicted or expected observations
Data
experimental results
Report
a statement about whether a theory or hypothesis should be accepted, modified or rejected, based on tests of predictions derived from it
Molecular Biology
study of structure and function of biological macromolecules
Cell Biology
study of cel structure and how they function
Taxonomy
classification and naming
Genetics
science of heredity
Zoology
study of animals
Botany
study of plants
Anatomy
study of internal structure
Physiology
study of plant/animal function
Ecology
study of the interaction of living organisms
Element
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances. pure substances, each consisting only of atoms that have the same number of protons in their nucleus.
Trace Elements
elements required by organisms in minute quantities
Protons
(+) located in nucleus
Electrons
(-) located in the outer ring around nucleus
Neutrons
(no charge) located in nucleus
Atomic Number
the number of protons
Mass Number
the number of protons and neutrons
Isotopes
some atoms of a given element have more neutrons than other atoms of the same elements
Radioactive Isotopes
nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
Electron Orbitals
electron shell made of orbitals, each orbital holds 2 electrons, each shell can hold 4 orbitals.
Molecule
two or more atoms bonded together
Compound
a substance consisting of 2 or more different elements in a fixed ratio
Mixture
two or more elements intermingled in proportions that can vary
Solution
A liquid mixture
Acid
donate H+, have a pH<7
Base
accept H+, has a pH>7
Buffers
a weak acid and base that forms to counter slight shifts of pH
Organic Compounds
compounds found in living organisms, main 2 are carbon and hydrogen
Carbohydrates
Polymer, saccharide is the monomer. The most abundant biological molecule, used as structural materials, transportable packets of energy, and stored forms of energy. Three classes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Lipids
polymer, fatty acids are the monomer. Greasy of oily compounds, readily dissolve in one another, but not so in water. Certain lipids with fatty acid tail form the main reservoirs of stored energy, structural materials in cell membranes and surface coatings
Proteins
polymer, amino acids are the monomer. most diverse of all biological molecules. connected by peptide bonds. amino acid sequence is unique for each kind of protein, cells build diverse proteins from a pool of only 20 amino acids
Nucleic Acids
polymer, nucleotides are the monomer. Chains of units or single unit consist of 5-carbon sugar, one phosphate, and a nitrogen-containing base
Monosaccharide
one monomer of sugar: glucose, ribose, deoxy ribose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides
two monomers of sugar: lactose, sucrose, maltose
Polysaccharides
many monomers of sugar: starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitin
Starch
storage carbohydrate in plants (potato, rice)
Cellulose
structural carb (cell wall of plants)
Glycogen
animal sugar storage
Chitin
structural material in insect bodies, used in surgical thread
Lactose
found in carbohydrates, disaccharide, composed of glucose +galactose
Sucrose
found in carbohydrates, disaccharide, composed of glucose + fructose
Maltose
found in carbohydrates, disaccharide, composed of glucose + glucose
Waxes
cover plants, on animals they protect, lubricate and repel water
Steroid
lipids without fatty acid tail, cholesterol is a steroid, forms the precursor for sex hormones
Steroidal Hormones
6 hormones, help in the absorption of vitamin D
Anabolic Steroids
synthetic variants of male hormone, testosterone, used to buff up men
Structural Protein
form the structural elements of hair and nails (keratin) and bones and cartilage (collagen)
Transport proteins
govern many cell activities like oxygen transport (hemoglobin in red blood cells), tissue defense (antibodies), increase in rate of reactions (enzymes), control of glucose metabolism (insulin)
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate, energy currency of the cell. 3 phosphate groups that help in storage, transmission and translation of genetic information
Cell
Smallest unit that retains characteristics of life; all organisms are composed of one or more cells
Organelle
membrane bound structure with a specific function; combination of several molecules
Cytoplasm
everything enclosed by the plasma membrane except the nucleus. Includes membrane bound organelles and the endomembrane system
Ribosomes
main function is protein synthesis; spherical, single membrane bodies; free or bound to ER
Plasma membrane
thin, outermost bilipid layer made of phosphlipids; cell's outermost membrane
Flagella/pili/cilia
NOT organelles, motile structures that project from the surface of many cells and beat in distinct patterns (make cells move)
Nucleus
control center of the cell' most conspicuous organelle that houses the cell's DNA
Nucleoli (nucleolus)
containing RNA and proteins; DNA and associated proteins in the form of chromatin
Nuclear Matrix
viscous fluid inside the nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes and extending from the nuclear envelope that helps with the synthesis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification. Rough ER: ribosomes attached; Smooth ER: ribosomes are free
Golgi apparatus
organelle that modifies/secretes polypeptides and lipids, also sorts and packages the finished products into vesicles
Lysosomes
enzyme filled vesicle that helps with intracellular digestion in the cell. "suicide capsule;" only found in animal cells.
Peroxisomes
enzyme filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances.
Mitochondria
two-membrane bound organelle, helps in cellular respiration; inner membrane is folded into finger like cristae and has matrix and produces ATP
Cytoskeleton
consists of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. maintains cell shape and aids in cell division
Centrosomes and centrioles
help as girders of cytoplasm; support cytoplasm
Plastids
an organelle found only in plants that functions in photosynthesis or storage. ex: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, thylakoids, grana and stroma
Chloroplast
makes plants green (leaves and stems) and helps in photosynthesis; some starch storage
Chromoplast
makes plants colored (petals, flowers, fruit)
Amyloplasts
stores starch, white in color, found in roots
Thylakods
cross membrane attached to grana
Grana (Granum)
where pigments are located, gives color to plastids
Stroma
sticky fluid, matrix of plant cell
Central vacuoles
disposal site for metabolic by-products, pigments float around in sacs in vacuoles; helps with cell growth (vacuoles gain water: cell grows; vacuoles lose water: cell shrinks)
Cell Wall
additional structure outside plasma membrane (outer boundary)
Primary Wall
mostly cellulose
Secondary Wall
cellulose + lignin, comes later on in plant life; takes up cytoplasm and plasma membrane and the cell is somewhat dead
Lignin
gives brown color to cells
Middle Lamella
pectin; cement that brings two things together, found between 2 cell walls
Junctions
helps cells communicate with each other; animal cells are connected by junctions
Plasmodesmata
found in plant cells, connection between cell walls
Biology
study of life
Organisms
any living thing, unicellular or multicellular
Taxon
a group of organisms
Autotrophs
self-feeders, organisms that can make their own food, sometimes through photosynthesis (plants, algae, bacteria)
Heterotrophs
other feeders, organisms that feed on other organisms
Atom
smallest unit of an element
Molecule
made up of atoms (DNA, protein)
Tissue
group of cells (blood tissues, muscle tissues)
Organ
made up of tissue (stomach, liver)
Organ System
made up of several organs (digestive system)
Individual
made up of different organ systems (squirrel, frog tree)
Population
group of individuals
Community
different populations in the same area
Ecosystem
communities plus the environment
Biosphere
all regions of the earth that contain living things
Metabolism
ability to respire, photosynthesize, digest
Homeostasis
sensing and responding to the environment; maintenance of internal environment within range for suitable cell activities
Mutation
sudden change in the genes (sickle cell anemia, nectarines)