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Praying Towns

Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized

Lord Baltimore

Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Barbados Slave Codes

limited the rights of blacks; ensured almost absolute authority to white masters; blacks had no legal recourse for being beaten or shipped; could be executed for resisting the master this term was brought from barbados by whites who settled in South Carolina; Sign: enforced the color aspect of slavery; 1st of many legal codes that discriminated against blacks; set legal precedent for legal status of slavery.

The Pequot War

A war between English settlers in the Connecticut Valley and the Pequot Indians of the region. The natives were almost wiped out in the conflict. The English wanted more land so they were killing off the natives.

The Half Way Covenant

New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints


An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.

Roger Williams

A man who clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.

The New England Way

cooperation between church and state in the Massachusetts Bay colony

Old Deluder Act

was passed in 1647 in Massachusetts by the Puritans. It established the first public schools in America to teach children to read the Bible and thus defeat Satan

King Phillip's War

1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

John Cotton

prominent Mass minister, believed that only the spiritual "elect" should have any authority, to become "elect" they have a conversion experience, caused dissension in colony and would eventually lead to the founding of new colonies

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Stono Rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.

George Whitefield

came into the picture in 1738 during the Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and for him to lose his position as governor.

Society of Friends

also known as Quakers, founded by Margaret Fell and George Fox, name came from shaking at the name of the Lord, rejected predestination and orginal sin, believed that all could achieve salvation, women held positions in the church

New lights, Old Lights

division of religion as a result of the Great Awakening. New Lights:emotional salvaton. Old Lights: traditional calvinist principle of rational puritans and limited theocracy

Leiser's Rebellion

1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.

Iroquois Confederacy

A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the U.S. made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, CAyuga, Onondaga, and Oneiga, An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)


Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.


an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.


persons given large areas of land by a charter from the king

Navigation Acts

A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.

Glorious Revolution

1688. Bloodless political revolution. James II leaves England; daughter Mary and her husband William are INVITED by Parliament to rule England. THey agree to constituional limits; they rule WITH Parliament and agree to a Bill of Rights.

Jonathan Edwards

The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.
"Sinners in the hands of an Angry God"

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Poor Richard's Almanack

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

John Dickinson

Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts.
Wrote the Olive Branch Petition

Samuel Adams

played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

Proclamation of 1763

issued by King goege III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. organize Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians., A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Sugar Act

(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.

Declatory Act

1766: , after parliament repealed the Stamp Act, the prime minister passed this act that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever", but the Americans paid little attention to this.

Townshed Duties

Duty of paper, glass, lead, tea, oil, linen. This created growing discontent within the colonies and increased the sons of liberty activity, set only moderate tax rates that did not price goods out of the colonial market, indirect tax, part of the reason the boston massacre happened, 1776, england think they can trick the BNA after they refused to be internally taxed, by raising import taxes, however the colonists no longer see the difference between external and internal tax, its all the same to them now.

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Thomas Hutchinson

Lieutenant Governor (and later Governor) of Massachusetts. Advocated limiting the English liberties for American colonists. British sympathist prior to the American Revolution., believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

Committes of Correspondence

1772, Sam Adams worried about loss of liberties & use of tax revenue to pay salaries of governors and spread information and coordinate protests to defend colonial rights (12 of 13 colonies involved)- first one was in boston

Olive Branch of Petition

Letter sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III in 1775 in an attempt to avoid war.

James Madison

father of the constitution; leading federalist; author of the Bill of Rights, The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.

Alexander Hamilton

First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

Shay's Rebellion

this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

Northwest Ordinance

The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation

Virginia Plan

Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

New Jersey Plan

Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.

Connecticut Compromise

agreement during the constitutional convention that congress should be composed of a senate, in which states would be represented equally, and a house, in which representation would be based on a state's population


Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.

Anti Federalists

They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.

Articles of Confederation

This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.

Seperation of Powers

dividing the powers of government among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches


a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states

Checks and Balances

system of overlapping the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of the others




A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.

Joseph Brant

Mohawk Indians (brother and sister), that had allied themselves with the British, causing a division in the already weakened Iroquois Confederacy, when three of the nations followed them in support of the British.

Marquis De Laffayette

french noble who fought alongside the americans in the revolutionary war.

Battle of Saratoga

this battle was a turning point in the war for the patriots; allies joined our cause after this victory, Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

The Federalist

a series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.

Quasi-War with France

Adams was angry as a result of XYZ affair a trade was cutt off with French treaties of 1778 were repudited and impressment of French sailors was ordered; 1798 - Navy was being funded - captured 35 French ships; Britain - ally; Finally France reconciled and new treaty allied with French; undeclared war

Handsome Lake

A Seneca Iroquois prophet. Preached against alcoholism by appealing to religious traditions. Had Quaker missionaries teach agricultural methods to the Iroquois men.

Fugitive Slave Law

If a slave escapes into a free state, the owner of the slave could go across state line to claim slave if they had a legal document proving that the slave was theirs.

Judiciary Act of 1789

established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)


British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.

Bill of Rights

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

These documents drafted by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the U.S. Constitution. These resolutions affirmed the principle of states' rights

Alien and Sedition Acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

XYZ Affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.

Pinckney's Treaty

agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans

Jay's Treaty

Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Report on Manufactures

A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.

Report on Public Credit

This was the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States. Hamilton proposed a remarkable set of policies for handling the debt problem. All debts were to be paid at face value. The Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states, and it would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.

John Marshall

1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly his work.

Missouri Compromise

The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

Yazoo Land Compromise

1795; the GA legislature had sold the huge Yazoo land tract fro a fraction of its value to land compnaies that had bribed virtually the entire legislature; compromised w an award of 5 million acres

Treaty of Ghent

American and British diplomats met in Ghent, Belgium, where both sides began with extravagant demands, but the final treaty changed very little except end the fighting itself. The Americans gave up their demands for the end of British impressments, and Canada, while the British abandoned their call for the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest and made other, minor territorial concessions; the final treaty was signed Christmas Eve, 1814.

Hartford Convention

it demanded financial assistance from washington, a 2/3 vote to impose embargo, admit new states or declare war in addition to abolishing the 3/5 compromise and limiting presidents to one term

Monroe Doctrine

1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.

Embargo Act

Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.

Macon's Bill #2

1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

Non-Intercourse Act

1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.

Rush-Bagot Treaty

The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes., a treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817 (signed April 28-29, 1817 in Washington, DC). The treaty provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America

Adam Onis Treaty

Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World. In addition to ceding Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.

Judiciary Act of 1801

Passed by the lame-duck Federalists in Congress in 1801 after the election of Democratic-Republican president Thomas Jefferson, this act was a blend of needed judicial reform and partisan politics. The law added six new circuit courts and added 16 new judgeships, along with their support staffs, for outgoing Federalist president John Adams to fill. These judgeships were criticized as "midnight appointments."

Chesapeake Affair

1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.

British Orders in Council

A law passed by the English while fighting the French in 1793. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn’t get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.

Berlin and Milan Decrees

1806 and 1807- Berlin decree- Napoleon declared his own paper blockade of the British Isle and barred British ships from ports under French control. The Milan decree ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports. This was Napoleon's "Continental system." This helped lead to the War of 1812. IT was harassment of US neutrality. Put the US in an awkward spot, either orders/decrees they followed they would be in trouble with the other.

Tecumseh and the Prophet

A Shawnee chief and his half-brother that sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. Their deaths ended the hope of an Indian confederacy.

Alexis de Tocqueville

Came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.

Five Civilized Tribes

The Cherokees, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the Seminoles were known as... Some Indians violently resisted, but the Cherokees were among the few that tried to adopt the Americans ways, adopting a system of settled agriculture, devising an alphabet, legislating legal code in 1808, and adopting a written constitution in 1827., Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

Robert Fulton

Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.

Panic of 1819

This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, backrushes, bank failures, unemployment and soup kitchens. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.

Transportation Revolution

rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s

Indian Removal Act

Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.

Erie Canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

Waltham and Lowell Mills

the first factories to produce a complete product; attracted young women (to educate males) with higher wages; bad conditions to cut costs; harsh working schedule

Seperate Sphere

19th century view that men and women have different gender defined characteristics


people who invest in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit


Frontier farmers who illegally occupied land owned by others or not yet officially opened for settlement. Many of North Carolina's early settlers were squatters, who contributed to the colony's reputation as being more independent-minded and "democratic" than its neighbors. (40)

Mountain Men

American adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains


coined money, usually gold or silver, used to back paper money

Henry Clay

United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)

John C. Calhoun

(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.

William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Frederick Douglass

United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.

Nullification controversy

Calhoun believed that if a state did not like a law they could ignore it and leave the country; started because of the Tariff of Abomination

Second Great Awakening

A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.

Seneca Falls Convention of 1848

for women's rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence/Sentiments


Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.

Dorothea Dix

A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.

Spoils System

The practice of giving government jobs to political backers

Gag Rule

1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress

Log Cabin Campaign

name given to William Henry Harrison's campaign for the presidency in 1840, from the Whigs use of a log cabin as their symbol

American Temperance Society

An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.

Angela and Sarah Grimke

two South Carolina sisters who opposed slavery and supported womens rights

Charles Grandison Finney

the greatest revival preacher; trained as a lawyer, stopped drinking and became an evangelist after a deeply moving conversion experience as a young man; held audiences spellbound; tall and athletic; led massive revivals in Rochester and New York City in 1830-31; preached old-time religion and was an innovator; devised the "anxious bench" where sinners stood and repented in front of the congregation; encouraged woman to pray aloud in public; promised a perfect Christian kingdom on earth and condemned alcohol and slavery; served as president of Oberlin College in Ohio which became a center for revivalist activity and abolitionism

Horace Mann

Education activist who worked towards better funding, longer school years, and higher pay for teachers, Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.

Sylvester Graham

early advocate of dietary reform in United States most notable for his emphasis on vegetarianism, and the temperance movement, as well as sexual and dietary habits father of graham crackers

P.T Barnum

A nineteenth-century American showman known for his circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth." His sideshows were particularly notable, even though many of the "freaks" he advertised were hoaxes." AFter Barnum's death, his circus was absorbed into the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus.

American Renaissance

Transportation revolution and romanticism contributed to this development. New market for fiction. Emphasized emotion and inner feeling and created a more democratic literature, accessible to everyone. Women also contributed literary works. Cooper, Emerson, Thoreau, Fuller and Whitman were all involved in this movement.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote "The American Scholar"

Hudson River School

Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River.

Mechanical Reaper

Created by Cyrus McCormick, this invention used a horse-drawn machine to do five times the amount of work one person could do alone.

Steel-tipped Plow

the device tht made farming of the praries of the Great Plains possible
John Deere


the pseudoscientific theory that psychological characteristics are revealed by bumps on the skull

Henry David Thoreau

American writer. A seminal figure in the history of American thought, he spent much of his life in Concord, Massachusetts, where he became associated with the New England transcendentalists and lived for two years on the shore of Walden Pond (1845-1847). His works include "Civil Disobedience" (1849) and Walden (1854).


an institution for popular education providing discussions, lectures, concerts, etc.

Sentimental Novels

Hawthorne hated this. "The Wide, Wide World". Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote many. "The Minister's Wooing" "My Wife and I" "We and Our Neighbors", and even "Uncle Tom's Cabin". These affirmed the domestic values of women at the time.

Penny Press

A newspaper produced by dropping the price of each copy to a penny and supporting the production cost through advertising

James Gordon Bennett

considered the first US press baron, founded NY Morning Herald


cured people by using clean clear water. The patient would take a cold bath. Woman would do this to take care of their periods or when they were in labor.

Minstrel Shows

developed before the civil war, placed white performers in black makeup, where they mimicked, ridiculed, and made fun of the music, dance, and culture of the slave population. Often the writer of the music had little knowledge of southern black music. Most composers were from the northeast (Stephen Foster ex.)

Contagion and miasm theory

Theory stating that members of crowds stimulate each other to higher and higher levels of emotion and irrational behavior

Nat Turner

Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives

Gabriel Prosser

A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including him.

Denmark Vesey

A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston; South Carolina in 1822; but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

Southern Code of Honor

The way an individual was perceived and looked upon in Southern antebellum society was very important to those of that time period and the least insult upon a person's good name could cause tremendously bad problems. The honor of an individual is so important because it reflects on him and shows his character.

Proslavery Argument

Essential to human progress, paast empires of greece and rome, biblical passages, and that it garenteed the equality and freedom of whites were all part of the

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