446 terms


Praying Towns
Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Barbados Slave Codes
limited the rights of blacks; ensured almost absolute authority to white masters; blacks had no legal recourse for being beaten or shipped; could be executed for resisting the master this term was brought from barbados by whites who settled in South Carolina; Sign: enforced the color aspect of slavery; 1st of many legal codes that discriminated against blacks; set legal precedent for legal status of slavery.
The Pequot War
A war between English settlers in the Connecticut Valley and the Pequot Indians of the region. The natives were almost wiped out in the conflict. The English wanted more land so they were killing off the natives.
The Half Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
Roger Williams
A man who clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
The New England Way
cooperation between church and state in the Massachusetts Bay colony
Old Deluder Act
was passed in 1647 in Massachusetts by the Puritans. It established the first public schools in America to teach children to read the Bible and thus defeat Satan
King Phillip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
John Cotton
prominent Mass minister, believed that only the spiritual "elect" should have any authority, to become "elect" they have a conversion experience, caused dissension in colony and would eventually lead to the founding of new colonies
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Stono Rebellion
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
George Whitefield
came into the picture in 1738 during the Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and for him to lose his position as governor.
Society of Friends
also known as Quakers, founded by Margaret Fell and George Fox, name came from shaking at the name of the Lord, rejected predestination and orginal sin, believed that all could achieve salvation, women held positions in the church
New lights, Old Lights
division of religion as a result of the Great Awakening. New Lights:emotional salvaton. Old Lights: traditional calvinist principle of rational puritans and limited theocracy
Leiser's Rebellion
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.
Iroquois Confederacy
A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the U.S. made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, CAyuga, Onondaga, and Oneiga, An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)
Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
persons given large areas of land by a charter from the king
Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Glorious Revolution
1688. Bloodless political revolution. James II leaves England; daughter Mary and her husband William are INVITED by Parliament to rule England. THey agree to constituional limits; they rule WITH Parliament and agree to a Bill of Rights.
Jonathan Edwards
The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.
"Sinners in the hands of an Angry God"
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Poor Richard's Almanack
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts.
Wrote the Olive Branch Petition
Samuel Adams
played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King goege III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. organize Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians., A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Declatory Act
1766: , after parliament repealed the Stamp Act, the prime minister passed this act that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever", but the Americans paid little attention to this.
Townshed Duties
Duty of paper, glass, lead, tea, oil, linen. This created growing discontent within the colonies and increased the sons of liberty activity, set only moderate tax rates that did not price goods out of the colonial market, indirect tax, part of the reason the boston massacre happened, 1776, england think they can trick the BNA after they refused to be internally taxed, by raising import taxes, however the colonists no longer see the difference between external and internal tax, its all the same to them now.
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Thomas Hutchinson
Lieutenant Governor (and later Governor) of Massachusetts. Advocated limiting the English liberties for American colonists. British sympathist prior to the American Revolution., believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Committes of Correspondence
1772, Sam Adams worried about loss of liberties & use of tax revenue to pay salaries of governors and spread information and coordinate protests to defend colonial rights (12 of 13 colonies involved)- first one was in boston
Olive Branch of Petition
Letter sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III in 1775 in an attempt to avoid war.
James Madison
father of the constitution; leading federalist; author of the Bill of Rights, The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Alexander Hamilton
First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Shay's Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Connecticut Compromise
agreement during the constitutional convention that congress should be composed of a senate, in which states would be represented equally, and a house, in which representation would be based on a state's population
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Anti Federalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Seperation of Powers
dividing the powers of government among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Checks and Balances
system of overlapping the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of the others
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Joseph Brant
Mohawk Indians (brother and sister), that had allied themselves with the British, causing a division in the already weakened Iroquois Confederacy, when three of the nations followed them in support of the British.
Marquis De Laffayette
french noble who fought alongside the americans in the revolutionary war.
Battle of Saratoga
this battle was a turning point in the war for the patriots; allies joined our cause after this victory, Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
The Federalist
a series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.
Quasi-War with France
Adams was angry as a result of XYZ affair a trade was cutt off with French treaties of 1778 were repudited and impressment of French sailors was ordered; 1798 - Navy was being funded - captured 35 French ships; Britain - ally; Finally France reconciled and new treaty allied with French; undeclared war
Handsome Lake
A Seneca Iroquois prophet. Preached against alcoholism by appealing to religious traditions. Had Quaker missionaries teach agricultural methods to the Iroquois men.
Fugitive Slave Law
If a slave escapes into a free state, the owner of the slave could go across state line to claim slave if they had a legal document proving that the slave was theirs.
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These documents drafted by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the U.S. Constitution. These resolutions affirmed the principle of states' rights
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
XYZ Affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Pinckney's Treaty
agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Jay's Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Report on Manufactures
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
Report on Public Credit
This was the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States. Hamilton proposed a remarkable set of policies for handling the debt problem. All debts were to be paid at face value. The Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states, and it would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.
John Marshall
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly his work.
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Yazoo Land Compromise
1795; the GA legislature had sold the huge Yazoo land tract fro a fraction of its value to land compnaies that had bribed virtually the entire legislature; compromised w an award of 5 million acres
Treaty of Ghent
American and British diplomats met in Ghent, Belgium, where both sides began with extravagant demands, but the final treaty changed very little except end the fighting itself. The Americans gave up their demands for the end of British impressments, and Canada, while the British abandoned their call for the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest and made other, minor territorial concessions; the final treaty was signed Christmas Eve, 1814.
Hartford Convention
it demanded financial assistance from washington, a 2/3 vote to impose embargo, admit new states or declare war in addition to abolishing the 3/5 compromise and limiting presidents to one term
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Macon's Bill #2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes., a treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817 (signed April 28-29, 1817 in Washington, DC). The treaty provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America
Adam Onis Treaty
Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World. In addition to ceding Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the lame-duck Federalists in Congress in 1801 after the election of Democratic-Republican president Thomas Jefferson, this act was a blend of needed judicial reform and partisan politics. The law added six new circuit courts and added 16 new judgeships, along with their support staffs, for outgoing Federalist president John Adams to fill. These judgeships were criticized as "midnight appointments."
Chesapeake Affair
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.
British Orders in Council
A law passed by the English while fighting the French in 1793. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn’t get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.
Berlin and Milan Decrees
1806 and 1807- Berlin decree- Napoleon declared his own paper blockade of the British Isle and barred British ships from ports under French control. The Milan decree ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports. This was Napoleon's "Continental system." This helped lead to the War of 1812. IT was harassment of US neutrality. Put the US in an awkward spot, either orders/decrees they followed they would be in trouble with the other.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
A Shawnee chief and his half-brother that sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. Their deaths ended the hope of an Indian confederacy.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Five Civilized Tribes
The Cherokees, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the Seminoles were known as... Some Indians violently resisted, but the Cherokees were among the few that tried to adopt the Americans ways, adopting a system of settled agriculture, devising an alphabet, legislating legal code in 1808, and adopting a written constitution in 1827., Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
Robert Fulton
Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
Panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, backrushes, bank failures, unemployment and soup kitchens. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
Transportation Revolution
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Waltham and Lowell Mills
the first factories to produce a complete product; attracted young women (to educate males) with higher wages; bad conditions to cut costs; harsh working schedule
Seperate Sphere
19th century view that men and women have different gender defined characteristics
people who invest in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit
Frontier farmers who illegally occupied land owned by others or not yet officially opened for settlement. Many of North Carolina's early settlers were squatters, who contributed to the colony's reputation as being more independent-minded and "democratic" than its neighbors. (40)
Mountain Men
American adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains
coined money, usually gold or silver, used to back paper money
Henry Clay
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Frederick Douglass
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Nullification controversy
Calhoun believed that if a state did not like a law they could ignore it and leave the country; started because of the Tariff of Abomination
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
for women's rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence/Sentiments
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Dorothea Dix
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Spoils System
The practice of giving government jobs to political backers
Gag Rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
Log Cabin Campaign
name given to William Henry Harrison's campaign for the presidency in 1840, from the Whigs use of a log cabin as their symbol
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.
Angela and Sarah Grimke
two South Carolina sisters who opposed slavery and supported womens rights
Charles Grandison Finney
the greatest revival preacher; trained as a lawyer, stopped drinking and became an evangelist after a deeply moving conversion experience as a young man; held audiences spellbound; tall and athletic; led massive revivals in Rochester and New York City in 1830-31; preached old-time religion and was an innovator; devised the "anxious bench" where sinners stood and repented in front of the congregation; encouraged woman to pray aloud in public; promised a perfect Christian kingdom on earth and condemned alcohol and slavery; served as president of Oberlin College in Ohio which became a center for revivalist activity and abolitionism
Horace Mann
Education activist who worked towards better funding, longer school years, and higher pay for teachers, Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Sylvester Graham
early advocate of dietary reform in United States most notable for his emphasis on vegetarianism, and the temperance movement, as well as sexual and dietary habits father of graham crackers
P.T Barnum
A nineteenth-century American showman known for his circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth." His sideshows were particularly notable, even though many of the "freaks" he advertised were hoaxes." AFter Barnum's death, his circus was absorbed into the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus.
American Renaissance
Transportation revolution and romanticism contributed to this development. New market for fiction. Emphasized emotion and inner feeling and created a more democratic literature, accessible to everyone. Women also contributed literary works. Cooper, Emerson, Thoreau, Fuller and Whitman were all involved in this movement.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote "The American Scholar"
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River.
Mechanical Reaper
Created by Cyrus McCormick, this invention used a horse-drawn machine to do five times the amount of work one person could do alone.
Steel-tipped Plow
the device tht made farming of the praries of the Great Plains possible
John Deere
the pseudoscientific theory that psychological characteristics are revealed by bumps on the skull
Henry David Thoreau
American writer. A seminal figure in the history of American thought, he spent much of his life in Concord, Massachusetts, where he became associated with the New England transcendentalists and lived for two years on the shore of Walden Pond (1845-1847). His works include "Civil Disobedience" (1849) and Walden (1854).
an institution for popular education providing discussions, lectures, concerts, etc.
Sentimental Novels
Hawthorne hated this. "The Wide, Wide World". Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote many. "The Minister's Wooing" "My Wife and I" "We and Our Neighbors", and even "Uncle Tom's Cabin". These affirmed the domestic values of women at the time.
Penny Press
A newspaper produced by dropping the price of each copy to a penny and supporting the production cost through advertising
James Gordon Bennett
considered the first US press baron, founded NY Morning Herald
cured people by using clean clear water. The patient would take a cold bath. Woman would do this to take care of their periods or when they were in labor.
Minstrel Shows
developed before the civil war, placed white performers in black makeup, where they mimicked, ridiculed, and made fun of the music, dance, and culture of the slave population. Often the writer of the music had little knowledge of southern black music. Most composers were from the northeast (Stephen Foster ex.)
Contagion and miasm theory
Theory stating that members of crowds stimulate each other to higher and higher levels of emotion and irrational behavior
Nat Turner
Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
Gabriel Prosser
A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including him.
Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston; South Carolina in 1822; but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Southern Code of Honor
The way an individual was perceived and looked upon in Southern antebellum society was very important to those of that time period and the least insult upon a person's good name could cause tremendously bad problems. The honor of an individual is so important because it reflects on him and shows his character.
Proslavery Argument
Essential to human progress, paast empires of greece and rome, biblical passages, and that it garenteed the equality and freedom of whites were all part of the
Upper North and Lower South
Upper north: Industry and Factories. No slaves
Lower South: Slaves and agriculture. Cash crops
Plantation System
large self-sufficient farms owned by planters (gentry) mostly in the south; grew cash crops like tobacco, rice and indigo for profit; most plantations held as many 200 slaves; planters controlled southern politics.
Religious folk songs, emotional Christian songs sung by slaves in the South that mixed African and European elements and usually expressed slaves' religious beliefs
Free Southern blacks
a "third race", prohibited from certain occupations, barred from some Northern states, often in competition with whites for menial jobs
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
People of the Pine Barrens
made up 10% of the population in the South. They owned no land, they illegally lived on other people's land, hunted and fished for food, raised pigs, and only planted crops when they needed whiskey. Nobody liked them because they thought they were all lazy.
Kinship Ties and Networks
those who were not related by blood but had family-like relationships were considered to have "kinship ties". this helped to rebuild families when REAL family was sold away., often times, families would be split apart by the slave trade. In order to keep a sense of family and community intact, older slaves would welcome other slaves into their family who'd lost theirs in the slave trade
Underground Railroad
abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves
Tredegar Iron Works
large iron factory that operated in Richmond, Virginia, in the early to mid-1800s
Native American belief that nature is alive, pulsating with spiritual power. Force that affected human life for both good and evil.
in societies practicing shamanism: one acting as a medium between the visible and spirit worlds
Potlach Ceremony
the host gains high status by burning their acquired wealth at a big feast that their guests are unable to match...such acts let Haida Chiefs gain respect...the haida household is an economic unit that produces, distributes, and consumes surplus goods...the haida consider hard work a virtue and scorn laziness but gain pleasure by watching their years of hard work go up in smoke at potlatch parties...
Nuclear and Extended Families
The term nuclear family is used to distinguish a family group consisting of most commonly, a father and mother and their children, from what is known as an extended family. Nuclear families can be any size, as long as the family can support itself and there are only children and two parents.
Mound Building Culture
eastern woodlands societies, which flourished 1200 BCE-1400 CE; included Poverty Point, Adena, Hopewell and Mississipian
Kinship Bonds
these lasted for life, strong ties of residence and deference bound each couple to one or both sets of parents, producing what social scientists call extended families.
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Hohokam and Anasazi Culture
They were both agriculture communities, thus they built and lived in villages and communities and were joined together by canals.
Hopewell and Mississippian Culture
Amerindian peoples from Ohio; major part in regional trade, searching for metals, shells, obsidian, manufactured items for their economy and religion, was generally larger and bigger than the other mound building Adena Culture.
mutual exchange of commercial or other privileges
Hernan Cortes
led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. conquistador responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. captured Tenochtitlan. He had heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior so he began to stroke inland. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.
Martin Luther
German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Luther confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.
John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
John Calvin
John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Virginia Company of London
The Virginia Company of London was a joint stock company that recieved a charter from King James I to create a settlement in America. They provided the funding for the development of the Jamestown colony.
Separatist Puritans
Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
Non-Separatist Puritans
people who believed in purifying the Anglican Church but not completely separating themselves from it, Sect led by John Winthrop; believed that Anglican church could be reformed from within; formed Massachusetts Bay Colony
New Amsterdam
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)
Grants from European Spanish governors to control the labor services of colonized people.
Market Economy Capitalism
an economic system based upon the fundamentals of private property, freedom, self-interest, and prices
Elizabethan Sea Dogs
were English adventurers or pirates-Englishmen won the command of the sea under the consummate leadership of Sir Francis Drake, the first of modern admirals.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
Webster Ashburton Treaty
signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border. It also established the details of the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris (1783); reaffirmed the location of the border (at the 49th parallel) in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains, originally defined in the Treaty of 1818; called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatories; and agreed on terms for shared use of the Great Lakes.
squatter sovereignty
Bible Riots
In 1844 in Philadelphia, sixteen people were killed and thirty buildings were destroyed by Protestant mobs over the issue of which version of the Bible should be used in predominantly Catholic schools.
Mission System
Key part of Spain's plan to colonize California. They used these to convert Native Americans to Christianity. Eventually, 20,000 Native Americans lived and worked in them.
California Gold Rush
1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.
Wilmont Proviso
bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico
Manifest Destiny
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
The Overland Trail
trail specifically for mail and passengers which avoided many of the Native Americans; settlers travelled in caravans, walking or riding horses; it was an extremely strenuous journey which took 6 months with the best of conditions; there were extreme temperatures, arguments among travelers, and mountains to pass-Why? This journey often defined settlers lives- they were willing to make this arduous journey in order to attain the opportunities which the west offered- new scenery, undeveloped land, small towns rather than cities- mostly people moved west because of the promise of LAND from the government
The Alamo
A walled mission in San Antonio, Texas, in which Americans took refuge during the Texas War for Independence.
The Great Famine
The result of four years of crop failure in Ireland, a country that had grown dependent of potatoes as a dietary staple. (p.777)
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate
James K. Polk
The 11th U.S. President, he led the country during the mexican war and sought to expand the United States
Zachary Taylor
12th President of the United States, General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Stephen F. Austin
Successful empresario that brought 300 families into Texas by 1825. Initially a moderate, but alarmed by Santa Anna's brutal treatment of rebels, he became a radical who wanted an independent Texas.
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
John Brown
violent abolitionist who murdered slaveholders in Kansas and Missouri (1856-1858) before his raid at Harpers Ferry (1859), hoping to incite a slave rebellion; he failed and was executed, but his martyrdom by northern abolitionists frightened the South.
Charles Sumner
He was an unpopular senator from Mass., and a leading abolitionist. In 1856, he made an assault in the pro-slavery of South Carolina and the South in his coarse speech, "The Crime Against Kansas." The insult angered Congressmen Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks walked up to Sumner's desk and beat him unconscious. This violent incident helped touch off the war between the North and the South.
Daniel Webster
senator of Massachusetts said Clay's compromises were necessary to save the Union
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill
abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia.
a new fugitive slave law.
admission of California as a free state.
federal assumption of the Texas debt
Kansas-Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Lecompton Constitution
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
William H. Seward
bought ALASKA, oil and gold found
Personal-Liberty Laws
(FP) , Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
Freeport Doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
crittenden plan of compromise
a series of constitutional amendments proposed in Congress in 1860 to serve as a compromise between proslavery and antislavery factions, one of whichwould have permitted slavery in the territories south but not north of latitude 36°30′N.
Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
Gasden Purchase
land is the southern part of New Mexico and Arizona (south of Gilla River) $10,000,000 was cost. Named for ambassador to Mexico who made the deal. Bought for a future railroad location (flat land) that would go west to California
Know Nothing party
Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's. Officially called the American Party
Robert E. Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Ulysses S. Grant
He was the head of the Union Army by the end of the war and defeated Lee. Defeated Lee at Appomattox, ending the Civil War.
WIlliam T. Sherman
pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, "march to the sea" (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina
The border Slave States
Slave states that did not seceed (DE, KY, MD, Missouri, WV)
Anaconda Plan
the Union (Northern) plan devised by General Winfield Scott to blockade the south and restrict its trade to win the war.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Cotton Diplomacy
the confederacy thought they were going to get help from Great Britain and France in the war because they have sold them cotton for over 250 years but when they said no the confederacy said they were going to stop selling them cotton and they said they didnt need there cotton because they get it from india
Emancipation Proclamtion
Issued by Lincoln, it freed all slaves in the Confederate states, Lincoln's order that slaves in Confederate states would be forever free. *Changes focus of the war from being about preserving the Union to ending slavery.
Morrill Land Grant Act
this act gave states public land that would allow them to finance land-grant colleges offering education to ordinary citizens in practical skills such as agriculture, engineering, and military science
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Trent Affair
Mason and Slidel were going to england to negotiate southern-english alliance on British ship Trent, union navy came aboard and took them prisoner, violated British right to the seas, Lincoln apologized
Penisula Campaign
A movement that is an attempt to capture Richmond, they waited many times before moving. The confederate army attacked them while they were camping out. Confeds win
New York City Draft Riots
People against drafting rioted in New York City for four days. 100 people were killed and many black homes, businesses and even an orphanage was burnt down. The violence was only halted when frederal troops stepped in.
George B. McClellan
Union general who fought in peninsular campaign even though he didnt seem ready to fight. also fought in antietam
National Bank Act
1863, which set up a system of federally chartered banks,set requirements for loans, and provided for banks to be inspected.
Enforcment Acts
Were created by President Grant to go against the KKK
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Northerners who went to the South after the Civil War to profit financially from the confused and unsettled conditions
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Sharecropping System
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
Reconstruction Act of 1867
a.) put the South under military rule b.)Ordered states to hold new elections for deleagates to creat new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting. e.) Required southern states to guarante
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
Black Codes
southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves.
Wade Davis Bill
it required 50% of the states' voters to take an oath of allegiance for reinstatement into the Union
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Thaddeus Stevens
radical republican, lawyer, can't be bribed/tempted, refused to sign the Penn. constitution b/c only gave vote to white men, thinks "all men are created equal, abolitionist, chief author of 14th ammendment,
Panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and overspeculation, causing the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market)
Freedman's Bureau
Food, clothing, and education were provided to former slaves by the:
where many Mexican and Mexican Americans of the California region ended up living as the lower end of the state's working class, mostly in Los Angeles.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
Oklahoma Sooners
the federal government made available to settlers vast stretches of fertile plains formerly occupied by the Indians in the district of Oklahoma; scores of overeager Sooners illegally jumped the gun and entered the Oklahoma territory, they were evicted repeatedly by federal troops
William F. Cody
was an American soldier, bison hunter and showman. He was born in the Iowa Territory (now the American state of Iowa), near Le Claire. He was one of the most colorful figures of the Old West, and mostly famous for the shows he organized with cowboy themes. Buffalo Bill received the Medal of Honor
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Wounded Knee
village in South Dakota. In 1890 it was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people were killed, most of them unarmed.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Comstock Lode
first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862
1862, One of the 2 government supported railroad companies that built lines linking the east to the frontier lands
Ghost Dance
Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
The Dawes Severalty Act
passed by Congress in 1887; established fed Indian policy; allowed pres to distribute land to individuals severed from tribes; undermined tribal soverignty; religious and sacred ceremonies banned; shamen and medicine men imprisoned; shcools forbade Indian culture
Carlisle Indian School
Pennsylvania school for Indians funded by the government; children were separated from their tribe and were taught Engilsh and white values/customs. Motto of founder: "Kill the Indian and save the man."
John Wesley Powell
a Civil War veteran, led an expedition down the Colorado River in 1869. He mapped the Grand Canyon and wrote a book about his adventures. He sought to preserve our natural wonders as national parks.
John Muir
Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of U.S. wilderness; direct activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas; writings and philosophy strongly influenced the formation of the modern environmental movement
American Federation of Labor
Association of skilled artisans, led by Samuel Gompers that focused on wages and job security issues. The labor organizing spread to mining towns and lumber camps. They wanted workers to own the means of production; a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
National Labor Union
organized in 1866 have about 600,000 members agitated for arbitration of disputes and an 8 hour workday
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
(1888). In the year 2000, we will all live in a perfectly equal society where everyone is happy. This utopian vision influenced the Knights of Labor.
Henry George Progress and Poverty
An SF journalist who published a provocative book in 1879 that jolted readers to look more critically at the effects of laissez-faire economics. The book proposed placing a single tax on land as the solution to poverty.
Yellow Dog Contracts
Contracts that force employees to agree not to join a union or participate in any union activity as a condition of employment
Haymarket Bombing
In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights of Labor and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Terence V. Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
Standard Oil Trust
Rockefeller's company, in 1881, owned 90 percent of the oil refinery business, with a board of trustees at the head
Sherman Anti Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Thomas Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Cult of Domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house.
19th cen. social idiology. uncomfortable with a issue. named aft. Queen Victoria. self-control (etiquette), optimism (think highly of themselves), sexual repression.
Frances Willard
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Samuel Longhorne Clemens
Mark Twain's real name.
The research University
most colleges today are a hybrid between classical curriculum focused on classical/traditional instruction and modern open-ended research.
variety shows with dancing, singing, comedy, and magic acts
Coney Island
created as a way for working-class people to temporarily escape the hardships of the working, amusement park with rides and attractions that contrasted the grim realities many were living. Significiance: shows how grim the lives of working class citizens were that they need such an elaborate amusement built to take their minds off their troubles
The "new woman"
women less confined to domestic roles, women had less children and lived longer, some women lived outside the realm of families, women were professionals and politically active.
Genteel Culture
"the refinement of America". colonists who were wealthy from trade, agriculture, or manufacturing. held positions of influence or political importance in community and often flaunted their money and status. Large houses, carriages, and nice clothes. Leisure time (concerts, gambling, and gaming). emphasis on manners and etiquette. men went to college or had tutors (before only men who wanted to be clerics went to college). Women could get education in convents.
Gibson Girls
cartoon by Charles Gibson, modern and respectable, changes in appearance and activities mirrored changing roles of women (business attire, sports, college grad)
Aaron Montgomery Ward
a traveling salesman whose company beginning the early 1870's eliminated the "middleman," and whose services increased retail price of goods by reaching consumers directly through mail-order catalogs
Richard Warren Sears
1886: railroad agent, found a box of watches that a person wouldn't pay for. He was offered the watches for half price. He then sold the watches for profit. starts Sears
F.W. Woolworth
maker of chain store: "five-and-ten-cent stores"
John Wanamaker
US merchant and political figure, persuaded Congress to pass an act prohibiting the sale of lottery tickets through the mail, tried to promote thriftiness, he was postmaster general, first to make plans for free rural postal service
Rowland Macy
Between 1843 and 1855, Macy opened four retail dry goods stores, including the original Macy's store in downtown Haverhill, Massachusetts, established in 1851 to serve the mill industry employees of the area. They all failed, but he learned from his mistakes. Macy moved to New York City in 1858 and established a new store named "R.H Macy Dry Goods" at Sixth Avenue on the corner of 14th Street, significantly north of other dry goods stores of the time.
John L. Sullivan
influential editor of the Democratic Review who coined the phrase "manifest destiny" in 1845.
John Harvey Kellog
Found Health Reform Institute in Battle Creek, Michigan; Brother, William Keith Kellog discovered cornflakes; Advocated vegetarian and celibacy
Anthony Comstock
Persuaded Congress in 1873 to pass the "Comstock Law" which prohibited the mailing or transportation of obscene and lewd material and photographs.
"Big Jim" Pendergast
an Irish-American saloonkeeper, worked his way up to control almost all missouri state politics
Frederick Law Olmstead
Urban planner who designed Central Park in New York, and many other such urban green spaces
Castle Garden, Ellis Island
immigrant centers, inspected them for diseases and recorded their names (Americanized), many came through tired, afraid, sick
Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions
New immigrants and old immigrants
new: people frmo europe, russia, turkey, czech, romania, china, etc

Old: people from South and eastern Europe
-irish - germans, etc
Settlement Houses
community centers providing help to mostly foreign immigrants in slum neighborhoods, a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
City-beautiful movement
Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world.
Founded in 1844 in London by George Williams, the goal of the organization was putting Christian principles into practice, achieved by developing "a healthy spirit, mind and body". It helped industrial workers and the urban poor by providing positive activities.
Thomas Nast
Famous cartoonist in the 1860s-70s. He portrayed Tweed and his people as vultures picking at the city's bones.
Tammany Hall
was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably the Irish) rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Social Gospel Movement
stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
Bland Allison Act
1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Open door notes
In 1899 the United States feared that countries with "spheres of influence" in China might choose to limit or restrict trade to and from their respective areas. John Hay avoided any problems with trade by sending notes to each country who held power in China asking them to keep trade open and tariffs low.
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Greeback Party
attracted farmers
1887 pulled 1mil.+ votes and elected 14 mems. of Congress
ran James Weaver for Pres
James G. Blaine
served as secretary of state in 2 administrations and wanted america to expand influence in latin america
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Agreements
agreement between the United States and Panama granting exclusive canal rights to the United States across the Isthmus of Panama in exchange for financial reimbursement and guarantees of protection to the newly established republic.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
The Maine
An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
The Farmers' Alliance Movement
organized agrarian economic movement amongst U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. One of the goals of the organization was to end the adverse effects of the crop-lien system on farmers after the American Civil War.[1][2] First formed in 1876 in Lampasas, Texas, the Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through collective action by groups of individual farmers. The movement was strongest in the South, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by the power of commodity brokers. Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1892.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Coxey's Army
unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Espionage Act of 1917
Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during WW1
Randolph Bourne
believed in cosmopolitanism interchange (cross fertilization among immigrants) ; U.S. should serve as vanguard of more international & multicultural age
East St. Louis & Chicago Race Riots
"red summer" of 1919, thousands injured/dead/homeless, wars between blacks and whites
Liberty Loans
Bonds sold by the Treasury Department largely through propaganda campaigns, used to raise two thirds of the cost of the war
Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata., A Mexican peasant rebel leader who sought to overthrow the Mexican government and stop Venustiano Carranza from taking it over first, gathering an army in Northern Mexico and, in anger at President Wilson's support of Carranza, eventually terrorized Americans in Mexico and burned Columbus, New Mexico.
A. Mitchell Palmer and the Red Scare
fear of communism; mitchel rallied up everyone to be, U.S. Attorney General who directed the FBI and federal agents to conduct raids on suspected Communists
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Arabic and Sussex Pledges
pledges made by the German government after sinking the British passenger ship Arabic in 1915 and the French steamer Sussex in 1916. The pledges agreed to pay an indemnity and offered public assurances that German u-boats would not sink passenger ships; the later implied the virtual abandonment of submarine warfare which didn't happen
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Gentleman's Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
100% American
American nationalism
Herbert Hoover
President from 1929 to 1933, called on businesses to help solve the situation rather than the government. Americans felt he did little to help them.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
George Creel
Creel directed the flow of government propaganda on the war and faced, for the first time in the 20th century, the issues of censorship, news manipulation, and the public's "right to know," so important to the freedom of the press in a democratic society. His task was to convince a divided country of the wisdom of Wilson's decision to join the war against Germany.
Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Marcus Garvey
Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
Kellog-Braind Pact
Said War was illegal, outlawed war and aggression, failed b/c there was no way to inforce it; except with war
Aldo Leopold
wrote A Sand County Almanac published a year after his death in 1948; promoted a "Land Ethic" in which humans are ethically responsible for serving as the protectors of nature
The Washington Naval Arms Conference
1921 led to an effective end to building new battleship fleets and those few ships that were built were limited in size and armament
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
1920- 2 Italian immigrants believed to be anarchists were accused of murder in MA - found guilty, though evidence against them was disputable - executed in 1927- though many believed they were convicted just b/c of pol. Beliefs
Scopes Trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Teapot Dome
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921 for a bribe of $400,000. It became symbolic of the scandals of the Harding administration
principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Aimee Semple McPherson
evangelist, founder of four square church of god, 1920s, used hollywood like tactics to get more followers, was popular on the radio, faked death. appealed to poor white people, practiced healing, anti evolution
Alfred Smith
He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate. lost to herbert Hoover
Alice Paul
head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
writer of "This Side of Paradise" and "The Great Gatsby" who coined the term "Jazz Age"
Jesse Owen
Black U.S. track athelete who embarrassed Hitler at 1936 olympics by winning 4 gold metals
Walter Reuther
an American labor union leader, who made the United Automobile Workers a major force not only in the auto industry but also in the Democratic Party in the mid 20th century. He was a socialist in the early 1930s; he became a leading liberal and supporter of the New Deal coalition.
The Popular Front
This established the 40 hr. workweek and a 2 week vacation in France.
Memorial Days Massacre
police shot and killed ten demonstrators in Chicago, on May 30, 1937, took place during the "Little Steel Strike" in the United States, the incident arose after U.S. Steel signed a union contract, but smaller steel manufacturers called, Little Steel, called for a strike, on Memorial Day, hundreds of sympathizers gathered at Sam's Place, headquarters of Steel Workers Organizing Committee, as the crowd marched across the prairie towards the Republic Steel mill, a line of Chicago policeman blocked their path, when the foremost protestors argued their right to continue, police fired on the crowd, as the crowd fled, police bullets killed ten people
The Congress of Industrial Organizations
Promoted the organization of all workers, not just skilled labor, in a given industry
John Collier
Under President FDR, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs who worked to create jobs for Native Americans and worked to protect thier land
Scottsboro Boys
Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
John L. Lewis
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
Harry Hopkins
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans. p778
Huey Long
Louisianna Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a , "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families ,was later assasinated
Father Coughlin
a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Francis Townsend
A retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly and laid the foundations of the creation of Social Security.
Mary McLeod Bethune
One of FDR's many African American policymakers who had the highest position of any black person in FDR's New Deal. She was made the head of the Division of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration, and reported to the President on the state of his legislation on blacks and proposed new laws to help them.
"Roosevelt Recession"
From 1933-1937, Roosevelt's first term, the economy showed signs of gradually pulling out of its depression, but in the winter of 1937, the economy experienced a backward slide and entered into a recessionary period. (Causes- gov policy, new social security tax, etc.)
National Labor Relations Act
protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Public Works Administration
1933; set aside $3 billion to create jobs building roads, sewers, public housing units, and other civic necessities.
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
The Social Security Act
provided old age insurance, unemployment compensation system, aid to families with dependent children and the disabled
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
The Civilian Conservation Corps
public work relief program for unmarried men 18-24. created unskilled jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources in the rural lands. army was in charge. during the Great Depression.
The Hundred Days
March 9-June 16, 1933; Congress enacted more than a dozen Progressive-inspired measures expanding federal involvement in national economic life; ambitious beginning of relief and recovery programs; symbolized both dynamism and confusion of the New Deal
Bonus Marchers and Hoovervilles
veterans who went to Washington demanding promised payment 2) moved into a Hooverville in Washington 3) Hoover cleared them out => two veterans were shot => diminished view of Hoover
Eleanore Roosevelt
First Lady, social reformer, political advisor
Committee to Defend America First
1940. Group of over 800,000 members who wanted to keep America neutral. Tried to influence public opion through publications and speeches. Thought it was more important to stay out of the war than to assure a British victory. Was dissolved four days after attack on Pearl Harbor.
Tripartite Pact
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
James F. Byrnes
head of the Office of Economic Stabilization set up by FDR in 1942 to control wages and farm prices. He successfully stabilized wages and prices and after the war prosperity had risen to new heights
Wendell L. Wilkie
The republican candidate for presidental election in 1940. Popular for his personality. Lost to FDR mainly b/c voters felt that if war were to come, they would need the experienced hand, and Wilkie was completely inexperienced and had never held public office
Henry L. Stimson
Secretary of State, decided to only "fire paper bullets" at the Japenese over their invasion of Manchuria. Stimson doctrine proclaimed that the US would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force.
Yalta Agreements
Stalin agreed to enter war against Japan in exchange for gaining land and to hold free elections in Eastern Europe after war. All agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupation zones
Battle of the Bulge
a battle during World War II, December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
A. Philip Randolph
organized a march on Washington DC to protest treatment of black workers in government industries
Congress of Radical Equality
comfort urban segregation in the north
Office of War Information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort.
Manhatten Engineering District
the armed expansionism of military dominated Japan (commencing with invasion of Manchuria in September 1931), and
the rise and expansion of Nazi Germany (commencing with Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor in January 1933, and his acquisition of dictorial power in March).
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Rosie the Riveter
A cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. The character is considered a feminist icon in the U.S.
allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys
General Francisco Franco, Spanish Loyalists
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
Mein Kampf, National Socialist Party
Book written by Hitler while he was exiled, my struggle.
Neville Chamberlin
Prime Minister of United kingdom from 1937-1940, was succeeded by Winston Churchill
Nuremberg Laws
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
a former political party in the United States, southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Henry Wallace
FDR's running mate (VP) in the election of 1940. He was the Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Agriculture; attempted to create a new farm bill, 1948 Progressive Party Presidential candidate
Employment Act of 1946
Started because of the flood of available workers after WWII. Established the Council of Economic Advisors. declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
"GI Bill", made generous provisions for sending the former soldiers to school. Majority entered tech. and vocational schools, but colleges and universities were crowded with +2 million ex-GIs.
Alger Hiss
state department offical. was accused of giving secret government documents to the Soviets
House Un-American Activities Committee
an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security".When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
1947. President Truman had FBI screen federal employees to see if they had any communist ties. 3,000 employees were either fired or resigned.
Fair Deal
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
A document that pushed for a large build up of the U.S military. It allowed the U.S to quickly build up its military for the Korean conflict.
Containment Plan
attempt to keep communism w/in its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic and military actions, resulted in invading Vietnam
Marshall Plan
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
George Kennan
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
Joseph R. McCarthy
Republican senator; held lists of communists serving secretly in government agencies; this information showed that the U.S. had already fallen prey to subversive influences
Interstate Highway Act
In 1956, Congress began funding a limited-access interstate highway system that has enormously increased long-distance travel in America and shifted population away from the central city to the suburbs.
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower's secretary of state, 1953-1959; moralistic in his belief that Communism was evil and must be confronted with "brinkmanship" (the readiness and willingness to go to war) and "massive retaliation" (the threat of using nuclear weapons).
Southern Manifesto
This was a document written in February-March 1956 by US Congressmen who opposed racial integration in public facilities as a counter to the Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs. Board of Ed.. The majority of signees were Southern Democrats. It declared the Supreme Court to have abused judicial power and that the signees will use all lawful means to reverse the decision. This shows how despite significant court rulings in favor of civil rights, a large sector of the government still strongly opposed integration
Orval Faubus
Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
Jack Kerouac
was the author of the best-selling book On the Road, which epitomized the Beat Generation of the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Allen Ginsberg
United States poet of the beat generation (1926-1997) wrote a poem called the Howl in 1956 which blasted American culture. Raised in an immigrant Jewish family in New Jersey.
In October 1957, the Soviet Union surprised the world by launching Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. The resulting outcry in the United States, especially fears that the Soviets were ahead in both space exploration and military missiles, forced the Eisenhower administration to increase defense spending and accelerate America's space program.
Rosa Parks
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Eisenhower Doctrine
given in a message to Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of US President Dwight D. Eisenhower. stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms.
Domino Theory
stated that if one country fell to communism, all countries would fall eventually
Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960
commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed government's changing views of race relations
Nonconformist writers who expressed a more fundamental revolt against middle-class society. They scorned conformity, religion, family values, and materialism as much as they did conventional punctuation.
Earl Warren
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
Martin Luther King Jr.
Born in Atlanta in 1929. Son of a minister. Attended Morehouse College and recieved a doctor's degree in theology from Boston University. Started the black civil rights movement. Also gave the "I Have A Dream" speech, U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Benjamin Spock
American pediatrician whose book: Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Its revolutionary message to mothers was that "you know more than you think you do." was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals, whereas the previous conventional wisdom had been that child rearing should focus on building discipline, and that, e.g., babies should not be "spoiled" by picking them up when they cried.
Cesar Chavez
1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
Barry Goldwater
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964. His Vice-Presidential candidate, William Miller, also made him appear very trigger happy, for he supported not just bombing North Vietnam, but nuking it to death. He was horrible with befriending voters, and lost by largest margin in history (39%)
Alliance for Progress; Peace Corps
Programs designed to help in the 3rd world so that communism would be less appealing. Alliance for Progress was a $100 bil. effort of public and private to try and give social reform and economic development in Latin America. let volunteers work for two years in certain jobs.
Ngo Dinh Diem
political leader of South Vietnam; established as president with United States support in the 1950s; opposed Communist government of North Vietnam; overthrown by military coup support by United States
Congress of Racial Equality
mobilized mass popular resistance to discrimination in a way that the older, more conservative organizations had never done, (African American leaders helped organize sit ins and demonstrations in segregated theaters and restaurants).
Black Panthers
political party formed by African Americans to fight police brutality. They urged violent resistance against whites. Many whites and moderate African Americans feared the group.
Mississippi Freedom Summer Project
Civil Rights workers seek to register blacks to vote. 3 are killed and many black homes and churches are burned. National outrage helps to pass civil rights legislation
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Kerner Commission
nickname for the Nation Advisory Commission on civil Disorders, which blames the riots on an "explosive mixture" of poverty, slum housing, poor education, and police brutality caused by "white racism" and advised federal spending to create new jobs for urban blacks, construct additional public housing, and end de facto school segregation in the North
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Betty Frieden
author of The Feminine Mystique (1963) she spoke out against women seeking fulfillment solely as wives and mothers and wanted women to "establish goals that will permit them to find their own identity."
Malcolm X
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Panama Canal Treaties
Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Sandinistas and Contras
- Sandinistas were rebels in Nicaragua
- Contras were guerrilla forces
- Carter gave a bunch of money to the Contras just because they over through the Somoza family which the US installed
- Boland Amendment banned military involvement with Contras for 2 years but Reagan got around it
Black Monday
October 19, 1987. Date of the largest single-day decline in the Dow Jones Industrial Average until September 2001. The downturn indicated instability in the booming business culture of the 1980s but did not lead to a serious economic recession. (1045)
Helsinki Accords
The Final Act of the Helsinki conference in 1975 in which the thirty-five nations participating agreed that Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force. They also solemnly accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing the human rights and political freedoms of their citizens.