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98 terms

Human Evolution

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Ape
any of various primates with short tails or no tail at all
Australopithcine
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Australopithecus Afarensis
Southern ape from the afar desert. Earliest fossil 4-2.8 million years ago. Remains found in Ethiopia and Sth Tanzania. Small stature, brain size similar to chimp. Bipedal, ape-like face (elongated, pronounced brow ridges).
Gracile
Omnivorous diet and therefore more varied cutting teeth like incisors; wider variety of foods like fruit, possibly meat; multiple evolutionary lines within this group
H. erectus
Brain two thirds of modern human; Hunters; Adapted for running; fire; moved out of africa.
H.heidelbergensis
Europe, Tall, muscular Tool: Achulean
H. neanderthalensis
Physically capable of speach, light skin, red hair, Broader, shorter, more robust body. Larger nasal
cavity, brow ridges, larger brains extinct 25-30,000 years ago
H. sapiens
100,000 - present. Cave art, sculptures, etc. Small teeth and jaws. high forehead, prominent chin
Hominid
Humans and Apes
Hominin
humans and human ancestors in a more recent evolutionary taxonomy
H.habilis
Africa, Short w/ long arms, small brain (grouped with A.) Tool: Oldowan
Human
any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae
Paranthropus
Genus of vegetarian hominins includes P.aethiopicus, robustus and boisei
Primate
monkeys, apes, and humans
Robust
physically strong
Climate
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
Diet
the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal)
Habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
Nomadic
wandering, moving about from place to place
Selection Pressures
Those factors that influence the direction of natural selection
Sexual dimorphism
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
Savannah
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
Broca's Area
controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Brow ridge
Bony projection protecting eyes. Prominent in early hominins.
Canine
one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars
Chin
the protruding part of the lower jaw
Dentition
The kind, number, and arrangement of teeth
Dexterity
physical or mental skill, ability
Diastema
a space between two teeth
Facial Angle
The slope of the lower face and jaw away from the flatness of the forehead, used by "scientific racists" to measure the difference between races (the sharper the angle, the more "primitive" the face).
Femoral condyles
the enlarged inferior end of the femur that forms the top of the knee joint
Foramen magnum
the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes
Forehead
the large cranial bone forming the front part of the cranium: the forehead and the upper part of the orbits
Frontal Lobe
that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead
Great toe
the first largest innermost toe
Mandible
lower jaw bone
Nuchal Crust
Ridge that holds the neck muscles to the Skull.
Opposable thumb
thumb that enables grasping objects and using tools
Palate
the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
Post Cranial Skeleton
below head
Prognathism
projection of the jaw(s) beyond the projection of the forehead.
Sagittal Crest
ridge of bone running lengthwise down the center of the cranium where muscles used for mastication attach
Valgus Angle
Carrying angle; the angle less than 180' between the femur and tibia. Indicates bipedalism
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
Zygomatic Arches
Bars under which the jaw muscles reach the back of the head
Cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Bipedalism
the ability to walk upright on two legs
Enamel
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth
Abstract Thought
allows teens to consider 'what if' situations
Achulean Tools
began making axes and cleaves to better butcher meat. they made a bifacail tool (symmetrical) Teardrop
Art
the products of human creativity
Decoration
the act of decorating something (in the hope of making it more attractive)
Burial
the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave
Culture
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
Domestication
accommodation to domestic life
Gathering
the act of gathering something
Mousterian Tools
carefully use bone to sharpen tools, Much like Levallois tools but retouched around the edges. Hafter tools like using super glue to attach to spears.
Oldowan Tools
stone tools made by homo habilis Pebbles
Social organisation
the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
Upper Palaeolithic Tools
Tools Of H.sapien. Made of Bone, Ivoy
"African Eve" Hypothesis
Theory that all humans came from one female in African. Via mtDNA
African
a native or inhabitant of Africa
Archaic
little evolved from or characteristic of an earlier ancestral type
Asian
a native or inhabitant of Asia
Competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
European
a native or inhabitant of Europe
Extinction
no longer in existence
Fossil Evidence
Remains of once living organisms show change over time
Gene Flow
exchange of genes between populations
Modern
Of the now
mtDNA
the genetic instructions or genome in mitochondria. Passed down olnly maternally
Multiregional Hypothesis
the hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world
Out of Africa Hypothesis
The hypothesis that modern humans (Homo sapiens) evolved in Africa and spread to other continents, replacing other Homo species without interbreeding with them.
Populations
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Replacement Hypothesis
Another name for the "out of Africa" hypothesis.
Y Chromosome
the sex chromosome that is carried by men
A. africanus
3-2 mya, 3-3.5 feet tall, 60-90 lbs, 490 cc, south africa, more human like teeth.
A. bahrelghazali
found by Brunet in Chad about 3.5 million years ago only upper jaw found may not really be a different species
A.garhi
Ethiopia, prominent prognathism, large canines, sagittal crest, Tools: Possible, Bipedal: Yes
Arboreal
inhabiting or frequenting trees
Ardipithecus ramidus
early Pliocene hominin; forest-dweller, possibly bipedal; lived about 4.4 mya
Australopithecus anamensis
4.2 to 3.9 mya in Ethiopia/Kenya; bipedalism (tibia and parallel ankle joint evidence), small canines
Brachiation
a method of movement that uses the arms to swing from branch to branch
Carbon dating
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
H. ergaster
Africa, thin cranial bones, small brain size, less pronounced brow Tool: Achulean
H. floresiensis
Indonesia, thin cranial bones, sm teeth, very short (3ft) Tool: some complex stone tools
H.rudolfensis
Africa, larger brain than habilis but could be same species Tool: Oldowan
Isotope dating
The process of using relative proportions of parent to daughter isotopes in radioactive decay to determine the age of a given rock or rock stratum.
Knuckle Walking
A form of movement used by chimpanzees and gorillas that is characterized by all four limbs touching the ground, with the weight of the arms resting on the knuckles of the hands
Orrorin Tugenensis
"Millennium Man" found in Tugen Hills, Kenya; possibly earliest human ancestor, more human in some ways than australopithecines; possible bepedality; lived 6 mya
P.boisei
-sagital crest
-very sexually dimorphic
-extreme disc-shaped face
Paranthropus Robustus
1-2 mya, 1950 by Robert Broom,Thick mandible, Deeper zygomatic arches, Teeth are worn flat
Potassium-argon dating
used to date rocks, uses radioactive decay, dates when a rock was formed
Prehensile tail
long muscular tail used as a fifth limb for grasping wrapping around objects
Quadrupedal
Using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion; the basic mammalian (and primate) form of locomotion.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
one of te earliest-known members of the hominin lineage, dating to 7 million years ago
Sexual dimorphism
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
Thermoregulation
the maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function efficiently.