any of various primates with short tails or no tail at all
Southern ape from the afar desert. Earliest fossil 4-2.8 million years ago. Remains found in Ethiopia and Sth Tanzania. Small stature, brain size similar to chimp. Bipedal, ape-like face (elongated, pronounced brow ridges).
Omnivorous diet and therefore more varied cutting teeth like incisors; wider variety of foods like fruit, possibly meat; multiple evolutionary lines within this group
Brain two thirds of modern human; Hunters; Adapted for running; fire; moved out of africa.
Europe, Tall, muscular Tool: Achulean
Physically capable of speach, light skin, red hair, Broader, shorter, more robust body. Larger nasal cavity, brow ridges, larger brains extinct 25-30,000 years ago
100,000 - present. Cave art, sculptures, etc. Small teeth and jaws. high forehead, prominent chin
Humans and Apes
humans and human ancestors in a more recent evolutionary taxonomy
Africa, Short w/ long arms, small brain (grouped with A.) Tool: Oldowan
any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae
Genus of vegetarian hominins includes P.aethiopicus, robustus and boisei
monkeys, apes, and humans
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal)
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
wandering, moving about from place to place
Those factors that influence the direction of natural selection
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Bony projection protecting eyes. Prominent in early hominins.
one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars
the protruding part of the lower jaw
The kind, number, and arrangement of teeth
physical or mental skill, ability
a space between two teeth
The slope of the lower face and jaw away from the flatness of the forehead, used by "scientific racists" to measure the difference between races (the sharper the angle, the more "primitive" the face).
the enlarged inferior end of the femur that forms the top of the knee joint
the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes
the large cranial bone forming the front part of the cranium: the forehead and the upper part of the orbits
that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead
the first largest innermost toe
lower jaw bone
Ridge that holds the neck muscles to the Skull.
thumb that enables grasping objects and using tools
the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
Post Cranial Skeleton
projection of the jaw(s) beyond the projection of the forehead.
ridge of bone running lengthwise down the center of the cranium where muscles used for mastication attach
Carrying angle; the angle less than 180' between the femur and tibia. Indicates bipedalism
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
Bars under which the jaw muscles reach the back of the head
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
the ability to walk upright on two legs
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth
allows teens to consider 'what if' situations
began making axes and cleaves to better butcher meat. they made a bifacail tool (symmetrical) Teardrop
the products of human creativity
the act of decorating something (in the hope of making it more attractive)
the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
accommodation to domestic life
the act of gathering something
carefully use bone to sharpen tools, Much like Levallois tools but retouched around the edges. Hafter tools like using super glue to attach to spears.
stone tools made by homo habilis Pebbles
the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
Upper Palaeolithic Tools
Tools Of H.sapien. Made of Bone, Ivoy
"African Eve" Hypothesis
Theory that all humans came from one female in African. Via mtDNA
a native or inhabitant of Africa
little evolved from or characteristic of an earlier ancestral type
a native or inhabitant of Asia
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
a native or inhabitant of Europe
no longer in existence
Remains of once living organisms show change over time
exchange of genes between populations
Of the now
the genetic instructions or genome in mitochondria. Passed down olnly maternally
the hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world
Out of Africa Hypothesis
The hypothesis that modern humans (Homo sapiens) evolved in Africa and spread to other continents, replacing other Homo species without interbreeding with them.
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Another name for the "out of Africa" hypothesis.
the sex chromosome that is carried by men
3-2 mya, 3-3.5 feet tall, 60-90 lbs, 490 cc, south africa, more human like teeth.
found by Brunet in Chad about 3.5 million years ago only upper jaw found may not really be a different species