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Integrated Science: Manipulating DNA/Classification
Terms in this set (28)
the process through which scientists make changes in the DNA code of living organisms
an enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
a process that's used to separate and analyze DNA into fragments
DNA produced from the combination of DNA from different sources.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
a technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene.
Describe the process scientists use to manipulate DNA.
The process scientists use to manipulate DNA starts by studying and changing DNA molecules. There have been different techniques on how molecular biologists extract DNA from cells, they cut DNA into smaller pieces, then identify the sequence of bases in the DNA molecule and make unlimited copies of the DNA.
Why might a scientist want to know the sequence of a DNA molecule?
A scientist may want to know the sequence of a DNA molecule because it can help in studying a specific genes of the DNA, to compare them with genes in other organisms, and to discover functions of different genes and their combinations.
How does gel electrophoresis work?
Gel electrophoresis starts off by the restriction enzyme cutting the DNA into fragments. Then, the DNA fragments are poured into wells on a gel (similar to a piece of gelatin), which are moved by an electric voltage across the gel. The longer fragments of DNA move more slowly across the gel, unlike the smaller fragments who can quickly move far across the gel. Based on their size, the DNA fragments leave patterns of bands on the gel. These bands can then be used to compare them with other samples.
Which technique can be used to make multiple copies of a gene? What are the basic steps in this procedure?
The technique that can be used to make multiple copies of a gene is called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The basic steps in this procedure start with the DNA being heated into two separate strands, then it's cooled to allow the primers to stick to the single-stranded DNA. Then, the DNA polymerase starts making copies of the area between the primers. These copies can make more copies, and result in millions of copies (in about a few dozen cycles of replication), of the DNA between the primers.
How are large DNA molecules cut up?
Large DNA molecules are cut into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences of nucleotides. The restriction enzyme will cut the DNA only if it matches the sequence.
What roles does gel electrophoresis play in the study of DNA?
Gel electrophoresis plays the significant role of the DNA fragments being separated and analyzed in the study of DNA.
Describe what occurs during Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
During a polymerase chain reaction, molecular biologists are allowed to make multiple copies of one particular gene.
How are living things organized for study?
in a classification system that names organisms and groups them in a logical manner.
Describe the system for naming species that Linnaeus developed.
He developed a hierarchical system of classification, including seven levels for naming species. One of the seven levels were called taxon in taxonomic nomenclature.
What are the seven taxonomic categories of Linnaeus classification?
Ranking from largest to smallest: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
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