70 terms

American History Chapter 1

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Crusades, Renaissance, Protestant Reformation
Three events that revived European interest in the Orient
Printing Press
Brought Europe out of the Dark Ages
Gutenberg
Invented printing press
Around 1440
when Johann Gutenberg invented printing press
Religious Freedom
US religion
Forced Religion
Europe's religion
Leif Ericson
Who people think found America in 1000 AD
Crusades
Series of wars to drive Muslims out of Holy Land
Christendom
Nations that professed to be Christian
Middle Class
Merchants and traders
Marco Polo
Son of Italian Merchant; served Kublai Khan and wrote about riches in Orient
Kublai Khan
Ruler of China
Renaissance
Reborn or rebirth
Prince Henry the Navigator
Founded navigation school and sent out ships to explore the western coast of Africa
Bartholomew Dias
Reached Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco de Gama
1498 sailed all the way around Africa; opened all-water route to Indies/Orient
Tower of Babel
Post-Flood site that the people were scattered from because their language was confounded
Land Bridge
The way that we think the first Indians got to America
Courage and success in war
Determined a man's standing in the American Indian tribe
Two important facts Columbus didn't know
Underestimated distance between Europe and Asia
Didn't know N+S America lay between Europe and Asia
Portugal
leading nation in exploration in the 15th century
Ferdinand and Isabella
finally sponsored Columbus
Spain
Ferdinand and Isabella's country
San Salvador
Where Columbus landed in 1492
Indians
Called this because Columbus thought he had reached the Indies
Why Columbus is a great explorer
Relentless Determination
Discovery led to the founding of a new nation
Amerigo Vespucci
Who America is named for
Long Houses
Built of timber
Maize
Corn
Cuba
West Indian Island
Hispaniola
modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
Columbus's Ships
Arawaks
Friendly native people
Caribs
Tribe of cannibals
Fame and fortune
What motivated Spain to explore the New World
Balboa's discovery of Pacific was significant
Europeans knew that an ocean lay between America and Orient
Killed in Philippines
What happened to Magellan before journey was complete
Montezuma
Powerful chief of the Aztecs
Hernando Cortes
Conquered Aztecs of Mexico
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered Incas of Peru
St. Augustine
First permanent Spanish settlement in US
England
Spain's chief rival; threatened Spain's power and financial well-being
Philip II
Sent "Invincible Armada" against England
Spain would have been ruler of America
If Spanish Armada had defeated English
Conquistadors
Conquerors
Ponce de Leon
Conqueror; governor of Puerto Rico; tried to find fountain of youth
Florida
Pascua florida; Feast of Flowers at Easter time
"Seven Cities of Cibola"
Fabled cities which Coronado searched for, but never found
Coronado
Searched in vain for 7 cities of Cibola
Pueblos
Indians who live in present day NM; Spanish for town
De Soto
Explored Florida, Georgia, N+S Carolina, and Tennessee
Santa Fe
Capital of Spanish colonies in NA
El Camino Real
"The King's Highway"
"Sea Dogs"
Daring sea captains who threatened Spanish power
Sir Francis Drake
Attacked Spanish ships bound for Spain from New World
Counter-Reformation
To bring souls back into the Catholic fold
Quebec
First permanent French settlement
King Louis XIV
Where the name Louisiana came from
"New France"
Canada, Great Lakes Region, Mississippi Valley
Indians
With the exception of Iroquois, all were friends with France
Why New France was never heavily populated
Most French colonists were hunters and traders and never established permanent homes
Lacked self-government:ruled by French King and royal governor
Lacked religious freedom: only Catholics were allowed to live in NF
Cartier
Discovered St. Lawrence River
Huguenots
French Protestants
Charles Fort and Fort Caroline
Established by Huguenots
Champlain
"Father of New France"
Marquette
Jesuit missionary
Joliet
Fur trader who explored central Mississippi River with Marquette
De la Salle
Claimed Mississippi Valley for France
Iroquois
Only Indians that did not befriend France
New Orleans
Founded in 1718; best known city of French heritage in America