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Terms in this set (203)
An upright position with the arms abducted, palms forward, and head forward describes the
A representation of the patient's anatomic structures that can be obtained, viewed, manipulated, and stored digitally is the definition for
The vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves describes the
median or midsagittal plane
Which of the following terms describes the sole of the foot?
Which term describes the back or posterior aspect of the hand?
A position in which the head is lower than the feet is:
Which term describes lying down in any position?
A recumbent oblique position in which the patient is lying on the left anterior side rotated anteriorly, with the right knee and thigh flexed is termed:
A patient is erect with the left side directly against the image receptor. The central ray (CR) enters the right side of the body. What is this radiographic position?
A patient is lying on her back. The x-ray tube is horizontally directed with the CR entering the right side of the body. The image receptor is adjacent to the left side of the body. What is the radiographic position?
A patient is erect facing the image receptor. The left side of the body is turned 45 degrees toward the image receptor. The CR enters the posterior aspect of the body and exits the anterior. What is this radiographic position?
What type of projection is created with the CR angled and directed along the long axis of the body?
Opposite term for supination is:
Tangential and axial projections are the same type of projection.
The radiographic term projection is defined as:
path or direction o the central ray
Which of the following is an example of a beam-restricting device?
Which of the following bony landmarks corresponds with the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebrae (C7)?
The iliac crest corresponds to the level of:
The sthenic body habitus represents ____ of the population.
The patient is lying on her right side on a cart. The anterior surface of the patient is against the image receptor. A horizontal central ray enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior surface of the body. What specific position has been performed?
Right lateral decubitus
What is the primary source of radiation to the technologist?
Scatter from the patient
Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove electrons from an atom or molecule is referred to as:
The intensity of an x-ray is determined by:
both kVp and mAs
An example of a stochastic (randomly occurring) effect of radiation is:
ALARA stands for:
As low as reasonably achievable
Where should the primary radiation badge be worn?
Collar level above lead apron
3 Cardinal rules of radiation protection
Time, Distance, Shielding
Movement of an arm or leg toward the midline
An inward stress movement of foot
Near the source or the beginning
A CR angle away from the head end
Increasing the angle of a joint
Movement of an arm or leg away from the midline
Decrease angle between foot and lower leg
Turn or bend hand and wrist toward radius
Rotation of hand with palm down
What is the name of the structure that serves as a passageway for both food and air?
The jugular notch is located at the top of the:
The lower concave area of the lung situated on top of the diaphragm is termed the:
The thyroid dose on an average adult AP chest with correct collimation is:
approximately 1 mrad
A well-inspired average adult chest PA projection will have a minimum of ____ posterior ribs seen above the diaphragm.
A correctly positioned lateral chest radiograph demonstrates some separation of the posterior ribs due to the divergent x-ray beam. A separation of more than ____ indicates objectionable rotation from a true lateral.
1.25 cm, 1/2 inch
When using AEC (automatic exposure control) for a PA chest projection, which ionization chamber(s) or cell(s) should be activated?
Right and left side chambers
For an average size female patient, where is the CR placed for a PA projection of the chest?
7 inches (17.8 cm) below the vertebra prominens
Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a possible mass beneath the right clavicle in the upper lung. The PA and left lateral projections are inconclusive. Which additional projection can be taken to demonstrate this possible mass?
AP axial lordotic
When performing the lateral projection of the upper airway, exposure should be made during a slow, deep inspiration rather than at the end of the inspiration.
Why is the left lateral chest position the most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest?
patient's heart is closer o the IR
For which type of body habitus will the diaphragm be at the lowest position in the body?
Where are the hands placed for a PA projection of the chest?
back of the hands on the hips
What is the optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph?
full inspiration-second breath
How is the CR positioned for an x-ray projection done with the patient placed in a decubitus position?
Which of the following exposure techniques is required to penetrate all of the thoracic anatomy and provide the best possible image contrast when performing chest radiography?
How far above the shoulders should the top of the IR be positioned for an averaged sized patient for PA and lateral projections of the chest?
Which plane must be accurately parallel with the IR to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a lateral chest radiograph?
You are performing a chest x-ray examination and the patient is erect with the anterior aspect toward the image receptor. The body is turned 45 degrees and the left side is placed near the image receptor. What is the position/projection?
A patient is placed lying on the right side on a litter. The x-ray beam is directed horizontally and enters the anterior aspect of the body. The image receptor is against the posterior surface of the patient. What position/projection is being taken in this case?
right lateral decubitus/AP
The prominent protuberance found on the anterior aspect of the ilium is the:
anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
What type of respiration should be used for abdominal radiography?
To ensure that the diaphragm is included on the erect abdomen projection, the CR should be centered:
2 inches above the iliac crest
Why is the left lateral decubitus preferred over the right lateral decubitus abdomen for an acute abdomen series or obstruction series?
Any intraperitoneal air will be visualized along the lower liver margin.
Situation: A dorsal decubitus abdomen is ordered on a patient. The patient is placed on his back on a cart. The CR will enter the left side of the patient with the patient's right side against the image receptor. What type of marker should be used?
Right and decubitus markers
The midline dose for an average-sized male AP erect abdomen projection is:
50 to 100 mrad.
Where is the center of the IR positioned for an AP adult abdominal radiograph done in the supine position?
top of iliac crest
What is the respiration phase for an AP or PA abdominal radiograph done in the
Where is the center of the IR positioned for an AP adult abdominal radiograph done in the left lateral decubitus position?
2 inches above iliac crest
It is often necessary to demonstrate small amounts of intraperitoneal gas in patients with an acute abdomen. How long should the patient lay in the left lateral position before the radiograph is made?
a minimum of 5 minutes; preferrably 10 to 20 minutes
A radiograph of a KUB on a large, hypersthenic patient reveals that the
entire abdomen is not included on the 35 x 43 cm (14x17") image receptor.
What can be done to correct this on a repeat radiograph?
use two separate cassettes placed crosswise
The presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity is termed:
A radiograph of an AP projection of the abdomen reveals that the right iliac
wing is wider than the left iliac wing. What type of positioning error was
patient was rotated toward the right with left side elevated
Which of the following radiographs are usually taken for an acute abdominal series or obstruction series?
erect PA chest, supine and erect AP abdomen
Which specific anatomy is better visualized with a fan lateral as compared with the other lateral projections of the hand?
Why should the hand be slightly arched for a PA projection of the wrist?
To reduce the OID of the carpal bones
Where is the CR centered for a PA projection of the hand?
At the third metacarpophalangeal joint
How much obliquity is required for a PA oblique projection of the hand?
Where is the CR placed for a PA projection of the third digit?
At the proximal interphalangeal joint
For the lateromedial projection of the hand, the CR is directed to enter at the:
second digit metaacarophalangeal joint
The CR angulation for the PA projection of the hand is:
For the lateromedial projection of the wrist, the elbow must be flexed:
Which of the following is the primary projection used to demonstrate anterior or posterior displacement of fractures of the hand or wrist?
The PA Axial projection of the wrist( Stetcher method) clearly demonstrates the:
If the IR and wrist are placed flat on the table for the PA axial projection of the wrist (Stecher method), the central ray must be angled:
Which basic projection of the elbow best demonstrates the radial head and tuberosity free of superimposition?
AP oblique with lateral rotation
Which basic projection of the elbow best demonstrates the olecranon process in profile?
Which of the following actions will lead to the proximal radius crossing over the ulna?
Pronation of the hand
How should the humeral epicondyles be positioned for a lateral projection of the elbow?
Perpendicular to image receptor
Where should the center of the IR be positioned for a transthoracic lateral projection of the proximal humerus?
level of surgical neck
A radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the radius directly superimposed over the ulna and the coronoid process in profile. Which projection of the elbow has been performed?
Medial rotation oblique
For a lateromedial projection of the forearm, the elbow must be flexed:
Which of the following is shown "in profile" on a lateral projection of the elbow?
Which of the following projections of the elbow will demonstrate the olecranon process within the olecranon fossa?
AP, acute flexion
Which of the following is demonstrated free of superimposition on an AP oblique projection of the elbow in lateral rotation?
radial head and neck
What position should the hand be placed in for the AP projection of the humerus?
Where is the central ray directed for an AP projection of the humerus?
midpoint of humerus
Which of the following is shown "in profile" on an AP projection of the humerus?
Rotating the arm medially for a lateral projection of the humerus will place the epicondyles:
perpendicular with the plane of the IR
The central-ray angulation for both of the axiolateral projections (Coyle Method) of the elbow is:
A fracture of the distal radius with posterior displacement is known as a ____ fracture.
To demonstrate the radial head in the axiolateral projection of the elbow (Coyle Method), the elbow is flexed:
How much CR angulation should be used for a scapular Y projection?
no CR angle should be used
Which projection of the shoulder requires that the patient be rotated 45 to 60 degrees toward the IR from a PA position?
Lateral scapula projection
The acromial extremity of the clavicle articulates with the:
acromion process of the scapula
Patients often arrive in the radiology department with trauma to the shoulder. Which of the following positions is recommended for x-ray examination of the shoulder on these patients?
In order to demonstrate the greater tubercle of the humerus on an AP projection of the shoulder, the epicondyles must be:
parallel with the plane of the IR
The respiration phase for an AP projection of the shoulder should be:
For an AP projection of the shoulder, the central ray should enter:
1 inch inferior to the coracoid process
Which of the following is prominently shown "in profile" on an AP projection of the shoulder with the humerus in external rotation?
Which of the following is prominently shown "in profile" on an AP projection of the shoulder with the humerus in internal rotation?
Which of the following projections clearly demonstrates the glenoid cavity?
AP oblique (Grashey)
When the arm cannot be rotated or abducted due to injury, which of the following methods can be used to perform a lateral projection of the shoulder?
How many degrees is the body rotated for the AP oblique projection (Grashey method) of the shoulder joint?
35 to 45 degrees toward the affected side
How should the central ray be angled for the AP projection (Pearson method) of the AC joints?
The AP projection of the AC joints places the joints at an increased OID. Which of the following is the recommended SID to compensate for this distance?
For an AP projection of the clavicle, the IR should be centered to the level of the:
How is the arm positioned for an AP scapula?
abducted 90 degrees, elbow flexed
Which of the following methods best demonstrates the supraspinatus "outlet" (coracoacromial arch)?
The central-ray angulation for a lateral scapula is:
Which term describes the top or anterior surface of the foot?
How much CR angulation to the long axis of the foot is required for the plantodorsal (axial) projection of the calcaneus?
Which position of the foot will best demonstrate the lateral (third) cuneiform?
AP oblique with medial rotation
Where is the CR placed for a mediolateral projection of the calcaneus?
1 inch (2.5 cm) distal to medial malleolus
How much rotation from an AP of the ankle will typically produce a mortise view?
15 to 20 degrees
A radiograph of an AP medial oblique projection of the foot, if positioned correctly, should demonstrate:
third through fifth metatarsals free of superimposition.
A correctly positioned lateral ankle will demonstrate the lateral malleolus superimposed over the posterior half of the tibia.
For the AP weight-bearing feet projection, the CR should be:
angled 15 degrees posteriorly.
Which projection of the ankle best demonstrates the distal tibiofibular joint?
AP medial oblique with 45-degree rotation
The calcaneus articulates with the talus and the:
What CR angulation is required for the AP oblique projection of the foot?
CR is perpendicular to the image receptor
A radiograph of an AP projection of the second toe reveals that the interphalangeal joints are not open. What is the most likely cause for this radiographic outcome?
Incorrect CR centering or angle
What are the two arches of the foot?
Longitudinal and transverse
For an axial projection of the calcaneus, the ankle should be dorsiflexed so the plantar surface of the foot is:
90 degrees from the plane of the IR
What CR angulation is required for an AP projection of the knee on a patient with an ASIS-to-tabletop measurement of 18 cm?
3 to 5 degrees caudad
What is the major disadvantage of using 45 degrees of flexion for the lateral projection of the knee?
Draws the patella into the intercondylar sulcus
How much knee flexion is required for the Settegast method?
For the AP weight-bearing knee projection on an average patient, the CR should be:
perpendicular to the image receptor.
How much flexion of the knee is recommended for the lateral projection of the patella?
5 to 10 degrees
Which projection of the knee will best demonstrate the styloid process of the fibula?
AP oblique with medial rotation
The correct CR placement for an AP projection of the knee is the base of the patella.
The correct CR placement for an AP projection of the knee is the base of the patella.
What is the central-ray angulation for the axial (plantodorsal) projection of the calcaneus?
Where is the IR centered for an AP projection of the knee?
1/2 inch below the patellar apex
The central-ray angulation for a lateral projection of the knee is:
Where does the central ray enter the knee for a lateral projection of the patella?
through the patellofemoral joint space
Which of the following projections of the knee best demonstrates the narrowing of a joint space?
AP of both knees weight bearing
Which projections of the ankle are performed on a patient following an inversion or eversion injury?
Which of the following will ensure that the knee is in proper position for a lateral projection?
Epicondyles are perpendicular to the IR,
Patella is perpendicular to the IR,
Leg is flexed 20-30 degrees
A technologist's attitude is one of the more important factors in making a pediatric procedure a success.
A child will be less likely to be upset or agitated if:
the room is prepared before he or she enters it
If parents are allowed in the room they should wear:
an apron and gloves if their hands are in the beam
When performing limb radiography, what may be required to evaluate for fracture?
the contralateral side
The largest and strongest bone in the body is the:
What is the central-ray angle for an AP projection of the femur?
How far should the IR extend below the knee for a lateral projection of the femur?
If a lateral projection of the femur will include the hip joint, where should the top of the IR be placed?
anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
How many degrees should the limb be internally rotated for an AP projection of the distal femur?
Cartilage tumors usually found in the pelvis and long bones are termed:
Inflammation of cartilage and bone on the anterior proximal aspect of the tibia caused by detachment of the patellar tendon from the tibial tuberosity:
The technique of wrapping a patient in a sheet:
is known as mummification or bunny wrapping.
Which of the following would be considered a trauma radiography guideline?
do not move the patient unless necessary,
obtain a minimum of two radiographs of each body part,
shield patient whenever possible
The trauma radiographer must ensure other team members are protected from unnecessary radiation. Which of the following practices will accomplish this?
lead aprons for all personnel that remain in the room during exposures,
short exposure times,
announcement of impending exposure to allow nonessential personnel to exit the room
What is the amount of abduction of the femurs recommended for an AP bilateral frog-leg projection?
40 to 45 degrees
Which of the following positions or projections will best demonstrate the superior and posterior rim of the acetabulum?
Posterior oblique (Judet method)
What CR angle is required for the AP axial, inlet projection?
40 degrees caudad
Where is the CR placed for an AP projection of the pelvis?
Midway between the ASIS and the symphysis pubis
The posterior oblique (Judet method) for the acetabulum requires a 10- to 15-degree rotation of the body.
Why must the lower limb be rotated 15 to 20 degrees internally for AP hip projections?
To place the femoral neck parallel to the image receptor
The two bony landmarks that are palpated using the traditional hip localization method are the:
ASIS and the symphysis pubis.
Using the above hip localization method, the femoral head can be located:
1½ inches (4 cm) below the midpoint of the imaginary line between the two bony landmarks.
What CR angle must be used for an AP axial (Taylor method) "outlet" projection for a male patient?
20 to 35 degrees cephalad
Using the above hip localization method, the femoral neck can be located:
2½ inches (6 to 7 cm) below the midpoint of the imaginary line between the two bony landmarks.
Where is the IR centered for an AP pelvis?
2" below the the ASIS
How many degrees is the lower limb and foot rotated internally for an AP hip?
15 to 20 degrees
Which of the following will be shown "in profile" if the lower limbs are in correct position for an AP pelvis?
What is the central-ray angle for an AP projection of the hip?
What is the respiration phase for the AP projection of the pelvis?
A patient with a shallow or thin chest requires _________ rotation than a patient with a deep chest to cast the sternum away from the thoracic spine.
Above diaphragm ribs are best demonstrated when the patient is
Below diaphragm ribs are best demonstrated when the patient is
Which of the following breathing instructions would be suggested for ribs above the diaphragm?
suspend respiration on inspiration
Which of the following breathing instructions would be suggested for ribs below the diaphragm?
suspend respiration on expiration
If a patient has a history of trauma to the left posterior ribs, which of the following preferred projections would apply?
AP and LPO
If a patient has a history of trauma to the left anterior ribs, which of the following preferred projections would apply?
PA and RAO
If a patient has a history of trauma to the right posterior ribs, which of the following preferred projections would apply?
AP and RPO
If a patient has a history of trauma to the right anterior ribs, which of the following preferred projections would apply?
PA and LAO
For the RAO position (PA oblique projection) of the sternum, the patient is rotated
For the RAO position (PA oblique projection) of the sternum, the CR is directed to
center of sternum
Which position can replace the RAO of the sternum if the patient cannot lie prone?
What is the recommended SID for the lateral sternum position?
Where is the CR centered for a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joints?
How much rotation and which oblique are required to best demonstrate the left sternoclavicular joints?
10° to 15° LAO
Which kV range (digital systems) is recommended for an AP study of the ribs found below the diaphragm?
75 to 85 kV
Situation: A radiograph of an RAO projection of the sternum demonstrates excessive lung markings obscuring the sternum. A 1-second exposure time and a breathing technique were used. Which of the following will produce a more diagnostic image of the sternum?
Increase the exposure time to 2-3 seconds.
Where is the CR centered for a PA oblique projection (RAO position) of the sternoclavicular joints?
T2-T3 & 1-2" lateral to MSP
Where is the CR centered for an AP projection of bilateral ribs above the diaphragm?
T7 & MSP
Where is the CR centered for an AP projection of bilateral ribs below the diaphragm?
T12 & MSP
The suprasternal, manubrial, or jugular notch all correspond to the level of:
The xiphoid process corresponds to the vertebral level of:
The inferior rib (costal) angle corresponds to the vertebral level of:
Which of the following correspond(s) to the Lateral sternum?
CR directed perpendicular to center of sternum,
suspend respiration on inspiration
Which of the following correspond(s) to the PA sternoclavicular joints?
IR size is 8 x 10 CW,
marker placement is face down,
CR is perpendicular to T2-T3
Which of the following correspond(s) to the AP Ribs Above Diaphragm?
IR size is 14 x 17 LW,
CR is perpendicular to level of T7,
erect position is preferred
Routine sternum protocols include:
Which of the following correspond(s) to the Bilateral AP Ribs Below Diaphragm?
IR size is 14 x 17 CW,
supine position is preferred
Which of the following correspond(s) to the RPO Ribs Below Diaphragm?
projection is AP,
right axillary ribs will be elongated,
45º obliquity is required
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