Introduction to Organic and BIochemistry - Chapter 15

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Carbonyl group
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Most simple ketones are best known by common names that give names of the two alkyl groups bonded to the carbonyl carbon followed by the word ________ketoneKetones are named systematically by replacing the final -e of the corresponding alkane name with _______-one (pronounced own)The numbering of the alkane chain begins at the _______end of the nearest carbonyl group.The polarity of the carbonyl group makes aldehydes and ketones ________ _________moderately polarAldehydes and Ketones boil at higher temperatures than ________, with similar molecular weightsalkanesIndividual molecules do not hydrogen bond with each other which makes aldehyde and ketones lower boiling than________alcoholsAldehydes and Ketones aresoluble in common organic solventsThose with fewer than five, or six carbon atoms aresoluble in water because they are able to accept hydrogen bonds.Simple ketones are excellent solvents becausethey dissolve polar and nonpolar compoundsAldehydes and Ketones are polar due to the presence of thecarbonyl groupCommon aldehydes and ketones aretypically liquidsMany aldehydes and ketones havedistinct odorsSimple ketones are less toxic thansimple aldehydesMany aromas and flavors derive largely from naturally occuringaldehydes and ketonesAt room temperature _________ is a colorless gas with a pungent suffocating odorFormaldehyde_______ is formed during incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and is partly responsible for the irritation caused by smog-laden air.FormaldehydeFormaldehyde_______ can cause serious kidney damage, coma and sometimes deathFormaldehyde________ it is a breakdown product of methyl alcohol, and is one of the reasons drinking methanol is so toxicformaldehydeOn standing, formaldehyde polymerizes into a solid known as _______paraformaldehydeis a sweet-smelling, flammable liquid formed by the oxidation of ethyl alcohol.acetaldehyde_____ it is less toxic than formaldehyde, small amounts are produced in the normal breakdown of carbohydrates.acetaldehydeAcetaldehyde_____ is the most widely used of all organic solvents.Acetone_____dissvolves most organic compounds and is also miscible with water.AcetoneAcetone______ is a colorless liquid, pleasant almond or cherry like odor; first extracted from bitter almondsBenzaldehydeBenzaldehydein aldehyde oxidationthe hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl carbon is replaced by an -OH group_____ do not have this hydrogen and do not react cleanly with oxidizing agentsKetonesAldehydes are reduced toPrimary alcoholKetones are reduced toSecondary alcoholsReductions occur byadding hydrogen across the carbonyl bond.Aldehydes and Ketones under go _______ ______ in which alcohol combines with the carbonyl carbon and oxygen.Addition Reaction_______ have both an alchol-like -OH group and an etherlike -OR group bonded to what was once the carbonyl carbon atomHemiacetalsThe H from the alcohol bonds to the carbonyl-group oxygen, and the OR from the alcohol bonds to the carbonyl-group carbon.Hemiacetal Formation______ rapidly revert back to aldehydes or ketones by loss of alcohol and establish an establish an equilibrium with the aldehyde or ketoneHemiacetal/Hemiketal Formation______ are often too unstable to be isolatedHemiacetalAn ______ is a compound that has two etherlike groups bonded to what was the carbonyl carbon atomAcetalA reaction in which a bond or bonds are broken and the H- and -OH of water add to the atoms of the broken bone or bonds.Hydrolysis