Final Review CLST 2102
Terms in this set (159)
Know the basics of Stoicism.
Stoicism (founder was Zeno) adapted for Romans to emphasize reason and excellence of character; also recognizes the importance of politics in this world established by Reason. The greatest good is to live in harmony with the divine Logos. Everything is set in order and planned by Logos. Divine Fire transformed into substances that gave universe form and order. Suicide permitted if one is prevented from living according to Reason.
Know the basics of Neoplatonism.
Neoplatonism founded by Plotinus and influenced by mystery cults. It reflects general move towards one superior universal power vs. various local powers; everything emanates from the One (perfect unity). Human souls include Mind, Soul, and Matter: goal is inward unity of these aspects and personal unity with the One. Through intellect and effort a person can enjoy while alive a temporary, ecstatic union with the One, but it is rare (permanent union after death). No savior, divine grace, or rituals required: individual spiritually independent and self sufficient
To what does the term taurobolium refer?
Refers to the sacrifice of a bull where the blood showers down on the initiate
Outside of new life and promised blessings, what were common features of mystery cults?
A god who's overcome death , Reenactment or retelling of cult's central myth , Sacred food or drink in remembrance of an important event in central myth (often proceeded by a fast)
What was the basic central story of the resurrection cults?
Central resurrection myth often involves a strong goddess [force of life and regeneration] and a more vulnerable figure, usually a lover/husband, who serves as a resurrection figure. Through the cult's central myth worshippers recall the death of the resurrection figure, mourn him, then share in his resurrection
Know the basics of the cult of Mithra.
Only open to men (popular with soldiers and merchants); God of light, spirit of divine fire and fire of the sun; No synoptic myth for cult just scenes: born in winter with shepherds looking on; hunts and kills a divine bull in a cave (tauroctony); has dinner with the sun on the bull's hide; cult related to Indo Iranian Zoroastrian dualistic beliefs of a battle between light, truth, stability [Ahura Mazda] and darkness, lies, and chaos [Ahriman].
What is the basic idea behind dualism?
Dualism is a theology based on the belief in two gods: a good god of light and immaterial things, and an evil god of darkness and material things.
With which resurrection god was Jesus most closely associated?
What is the difference between henotheism and monotheism?
Monotheism is one God while henotheism is one superior god, To henotheist: other gods manifestations of the superior being, To monotheist: other gods at best dangerous distractions form the true God, at worst manifestations of a demonic world opposed to the true God.
How did Christians interpret the gods of polytheism?
Polytheism: world is god, Christians are looking for a different world
Why did Christianity attract legal action by the state?
They refused to worship state gods and, therefore, were considered atheists
What were the rumors about Christian services?
They had "love feasts" which included cannibalism and incest
What were the Christians rumored to worship?
Said to worship a condemned criminal and the head of an ass
What did Pliny find out about their ceremonies?
-Meet on a fixed day before dawn and sing a hymn to Christ as to a god
-bind to not commit fraud, theft, or adultery..not to lie..nor refuse trust if someone gives to u.
-then they eat..
What was Trajan's policy towards the Christians?
Don't seek them out; if denounced and proven guilty, then they will be punished
According to Pliny, how could a person prove they were not a Christian?
Those who denied that they were or had been Christians, when they invoked the gods in words dictated by me, offered prayer with incense and wine to your image, which I had ordered to be brought for this purpose together with statues of the gods, and moreover cursed Christ, none of which those who are really Christians, it is said, can be forced to do... denounce Christ
Who conducted the first empire wide persecution of Christians?
Decius...-Nero (64) - Galerius (311) primarily local
Who granted official toleration of Christianity?
Under whom did Christianity become an official state religion?
Who banned pagan worship?
How does one find guidance for living life well, and assure oneself of an afterlife that is at least not bad and hopefully blessed?
Philosophy (usually for wealthy, educated people), Mystery cults
In which month did the Roman year originally start?
March because it was the start of the growing season
Who switched Rome over to a solar calendar?
Know the Roman system of giving dates and years.
Domus System: you count back from certain days
How was the day measured?
Day and night were 12 hours each, but the hours were not fixed because the length of day and night changed
What did Romans use to tell the time?
Sundials and Clepsydra(water clocks)
What two fabrics were most commonly used in Roman clothing?
Wool and Linen
Of which fabric were togas made?
What was used to clean Roman clothes?
What did Roman children wear?
Tunics and a toga praetexta which has a stripe on the edge
What was a bulla and what was in one?
A small chartm of sack that was worn around the neck that held a small charm inside
What were the fashion trends of men's facial hair?
- Roman men of the middle republic to the early Empire were usually clean shaven.
- In the 2nd century AD, emperors such as Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius adopted beards, and this fashion seems to have trickled down to the average Roman man.
What was the common fashion of women's hair?
Their hair was parted and they had a bun in the back
What dangerous substance was commonly used in women's base make up?
1st, originally marked by the new moon
5th or 7th, the moon's first quarter and suavely nine days before the ides
13th or 15th, the full moon
Civil lawsuits could be initated and other business attended to in the urban praetor's court
Urban praetor not open for business
Assemblies could meet, if the assembly met it was dies nefastus
Public holiday and potential day of rest on which lawsuits were avoided and religious ceremonies held
dies nefasti publici
Days considered unlucky or ill omened. It was wrong to do anything that was not necessary
Short sleeved shirt extended to the knees. It was common day wear and was worn underneath a toga
Primarily worn on formal occasions. It was the mark of a citizen and was illegal for non citizens to wear (It was a large D shaped piece of fabric approximately sex meters long and two and half meters wide)
Stereotypical garb of the adult roman woman. It was a full length dress with multiple folds
Large rectangular piece of cloth that could be wrapped around the body in a variety of ways(shawl)
palla (pallium if a man wore it)
Undergarment worn by ancient romans. It came either in the from of a pair of shorts or in the form of a somply loincloth wrapped around the lower body. It would be worn by both men a women
Bands of cloth tied around the bust of women (ancient bras)
large open space located within a building; main living area (family area and reception room) that consisted of bright, gaudy colors; also used for storage and weaving (possibly would have been somewhat cluttered); meaning is black
private house; most people were not able to afford a domus
Hole in the roof that was made to let rainwater fall through; central opening in the roof of the atrium that let in light and air.
bedroom, or whatever was needed
In Roman dwellings, a cistern or tank, set in the atrium or peristyle to receive the water from the roof, by means of the compluvium
open space enclosed by a colannade
formal dining room
What was the orientation of a domus?
Tended to face inward, not outward like modern houses, Big atrium in the middle
What does Mary Beard say about the interior colors of Pompeian houses?
Assault on the visual senses
Where was a house's latrine usually located?
What is a mosaic?
Small, colored stones pressed into wet mortar (usually on the floor)
How were formal dinners arranged?
No fewer than the Graces nor more than the Muses 3 people on a couch, 3 couches, total of 9 people eating
Which utensil was not used by people dining?
What sort of meat was not commonly eaten?
drinking and coversation
a very popular, but expensive and pungent Roman fish sauce used as a condiment and as a medicine
appetizers and muslum
• Memento mori
"Remember [you must] die"
a sweet wine
wine bar, where a limited menu of simple foods (olives, bread, stews) and selection of wines of varying quality were available
What was the least common way for a dinner to be cooked?
Baked in an oven
What dinner entertainment do the selections from Pliny the Younger and Martial both mention with distain?
Dancing girls from Gades
According to Aldrete what was the attitude towards beer?
It was frowned upon and was considered to be the mark of a northern barbarian
Other than adding water, what was done to counter the effects of wine at a comissatio?
Salty munchies served, Put flowers in hair
What was the main item in the diet of a poor Roman?
What do we believe the poor commonly did for dinner?
Ate out for dinner
What edict related to dinner was considered by the emperor Claudius?
It's ok to pass gas at the table
How did the orientation of a domus differ from that of an insula?
An insula is an apartment building that faced outwards, could be 6 to 7 stories high (or even more)
What is meant when we read that class stratification in insulae was revealed vertically?
Things went down the higher up you went in the building; appartments get smaller and conditions get worse the higher up one lived
What was opus craticum and what did it mean for city dwellers?
Timber framework filled with rubble and mortar(Cheaply built, not strong, and "like torches, they are ready to go up in flames")
What is the general attitude towards insulae in Roman literature?
Poorly built; associated with fires and collapses
What common problem kept Roman apartment dwellers awake at night?
Because there were large gaps in the already thin walls and ceilings, Also no windows,
How does Aldrete [and many others!] describe the layout of Rome's streets?
Few streets had names, no numbers on buildings, no logical pattern of streets. Streets narrow and dark (no street lights)
With what were Rome's streets paved?
How did one give an address in ancient Rome?
Directions based on areas or districts and familiar landmarks
How did the mission of the urban cohorts differ from that of modern police departments?
Mostly a "do it yourself" system: system depended on private individuals to bring actions
Which magistrate heard criminal cases of lower classes?
What common means of criminal punishment today was absent in ancient Rome?
How did the formulaic legal process work?
What were the causidici?
Individuals who earned a living pleading cases primarily for people of the poorer classes
How was garbage commonly disposed of?
Cesspit, vat under stairs, and often out the window
What type of natural disaster frequently disrupted and damaged Rome?
According to scientific knowledge of the time upon what did one's health depend?
Balance of four humors (fluids): blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile (and other combinations as well), To balance them: emetics, laxatives, bleeding
What did Celsus think was essential for good health?
Sleep, diet, exercise; don't tell bad news, Healthy lifestyle and patient psychology
What did Celsus believe a doctor should do if a patient had bad news, and why?
Don't tell them the bad news
To what extent were private homes and apartments connected to the public water system?
Only a few private houses are hooked up with the water system
What was unusual from a modern point of view about the way the Roman water system operated?
Water was always constantly running. Now, we can turn off our water whenever we want.
What protected Romans from the lead pipes used in the water system?
Hard water and constant flow of water
With what are Romans commonly said to have wiped their bottoms?
Sanitary stick (sponge on end of a stick)
Why might it have been a good idea NOT to be connected to the public sewers?
No S curve in pipe (back ups, animals, poisonous and explosive gasses like methane)
When did public business end?
The seventh hour
What was the attitude of the upper class towards those who worked for a living?
Upper class bias against the working class
What did the upper class think was the best way to earn money?
Agriculture, but not personally farming
What was the commonest occupation in the ancient world?
To what does the term "Mediterranean triad" refer?
Ancient Greek cuisine that was characterized by its frugality, reflecting agricultural hardship(Wheat, olive oil, and wine)
How were wages calculated?
Wages based on a day's work, not an hour's
What were the relative values of a talent, denarius, sesterce, and as? (Aldrete 195)
Talent: 6,000 denarii, Denarius: 4 sesterces , Sesterius: 4 asses
What did "SC" stand for on a Roman coin?
Senatus Consultum; by order of the state
What is the Monte Testaccio?
An artificial mound in Rome composed almost entirely of testae, fragments of broken amphorae dating from the time of the Roman Empire
What was the goal of Roman education?
To produce an orator
What were the three levels of Roman education and what was taught at each level?
Elementary School: anyone could go; learned the basics, math, Secondary School: language and literature, both Latin and Greek, Rhetoric: studies speech; a student was supposed to learn how to think like a lawyer
What was legally required to qualify as a teacher in ancient Rome?
No certification, Low social status
What sort of education did the poor receive?
What sort of education did girls receive?
Elementary education, Girls got married and didn't go to secondary school, but the rich girls could get tutored
What was the attitude towards corporal punishment?
child's first teacher; combination guard and tutor
teacher who taught secondary school
teacher who taught the highest level of education
speech to persuade a historical or mythological character to adopt a certain course of action
practice for pleading a case
What technological developments allowed the Romans to enclose large, open spaces?
The Arch, Concrete , Aqueducts
How did one clean oneself at the baths?
They did not have soap so they Work up a sweat, have oil rubbed on your skin, and then scrape all that off with a strigil, followed by rinsing it off
primary entry in the public baths; dressing room
under floor heating
vaulted sweating room of the baths
built and owned by the state; daily management leased
What was the legal status of prostitution?
Definitely legal, prostitutes had to pay tax
How did divorce laws change under Christian emperors?
What did the medical community think of celibacy?
To what does the phrase "bread and circuses" refer?
Welfare and free entertainment
Short plays or skits often based on daily life; often on bill with other acts, such as jugglers, animal acts, singing, dancing
Interpretive dance that grew out of tragedy (stories usually mythological and tragic); featured a star dancer supported by singer or chorus and instrumentalists
What were circus factions and how were they distinguished from one another?
Four primary factions (companies that owned or controlled the horses, drivers, stables, chariots, etc.), Factions identified by color of tunic (green, red, blue, white)
How many laps were there in a regular chariot race?
Usually seven laps, roughly 2.5 miles; 24 races a day
How many horses usually made up a chariot's team?
What did the lap counters look like?
Eggs and dolphins
What was the symbol of victory in a race?
A palm branch and probably a share of the prize money from the owner
With what were munera originally associated?
Originally associated with funers or commemorations of deaths
Who is credited with distancing munera from this origin and with transforming them into a form of entertainment?
What type of pairing was preferred in a gladiatorial fight?
A fair, even dual , Ex: secutor/ratiarius or murmillo/thracian
fish man; famous because of the helmet; well protected with armor
curved sword; small shield; not as much protection as the murmillo, but more mobility
unusual, smooth helmet (really restricting vision); giant shield
no protection; most famous; origin was not the military, instead from the fisherman; tremendous mobility
tiny shield; long spear; more mobility
Roughly what percentage of professional gladiators were killed in the arena in the first century C.E.?
What do the following terms mean or refer to: missio, rudis, pollice verso and pollicem premere, naumachia?
wooden sword; freed one from the arena but not from service
"with a turned thumb", that is used in the context of gladiatorial combat; it refers to the hand gesture or thumbs signal used by Ancient Roman crowds to pass judgment on a defeated gladiator
"to press the thumb" (let the guy off)
a mock sea battle, or the artificial lake and viewing area where mock sea- battles were performed
What entertainments were offered at the arena in the morning and at noon?
Morning: venationes: wild beast hunts, Noon: executions
How did one signal for mercy?
Raising of one finger, Fight ends when one can no longer carry one
Be prepared to identify [from descriptions] the first three styles of Pompeian wall painting (Aldrete pg 77).
1. Imitations of colored marble blocks
2. Objects, especially architectural features, painted as realistically as possible to give illusion of three-dimensionality and depth; columns painted on walls at regular intervals; figures, faces, clothes well drawn
3. Treats the wall as a flat surface with large, plain rectangles of solid colors; no interest in showing substantial architectural structures nor three-dimensional illusion; architectural elements thinned out; paintings and small vignettes of landscapes and figure
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