AP US History Notecards

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Emancipation Proclamation Purposes and Effects
A proclamation signed by Abraham Lincoln that ended slavery in the rebelling states .
Explanation: It did NOT prohibit slavery

It only allowed the rebelling slave states not allow slavery

Signed in 1862, to try to lessen the time length of the Civil war, This would fit into the 6th time period because not only was that when it was created, but thats when the slavery issues were at its climax.
Sen: The Emancipation Proclamation Purposes and Effects did not end slavey, it only prohibited it in slave rebelling states.
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
Ex: finished basically the works of the Emancipation Proclamation

Finished out slavery

the 13th amendment solved the slavery issuer but not the racism .
15th amendment
1869 Required states to enfranchise black men (suffrage) Only passed because Southern state were required to ratify it as a condition of reentry to the Union. A number of Northern states opposed it.(5th period)

If the 15th amendment wasn't required for reentry to the u.s. the south would not have accepted it.
KKK
Targeted those who supported Reconstruction. Attacked and often murdered scalawags, black and white Republican leaders, communicate activist and teachers.
Ex: The Klan successfully intimidated many of its opponents, preventing a more complete implementation of Reconstruction.

Southerners knew when the Northerners left, things would return to a condition much closer to the way they were before the Reconstruction.

The fifth because that was the time of the reconstruction era.

Claiming to keep the peace, Ku Klux Klan was synonymous with violence
Freedman's Bureau
To help newly liberated blacks to establish a place in postwar society. Social welfare - food, housing, social institutions like school (5th period)
Freedman's Bureau helped blacks integrate into society.
All aspects of the ten percent plan
10% of those voters who had voted in the 1860 election swear on oath of allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation through the Thirteen Amendment. Reorganize government. Reapply for admission to the Union. (5th period)
The Ten Percent plan was controversial.
14th amendment
If you are a born in the U.S. you are a citizen of the U.S and you are a citizen of the sate where you reside. (made former slaves, invalidation Dred Scott decision). Prohibited states from depriving any citizen of "life, liberty or property" without due process of law. Prevented states from denying any citizen"equal protection of the law" Gave states the choice either to give freemen the right to vote or to stop counting them among their voting population for the purpose of Congressional apportionment. Protects YOU from the state government (5th period)
the fourteenth amendment was to prevent states from recreating slavery with laws that don't outline slaves.
civil rights act of 1875
- no discrimination on color, race, religion, sex, or national origin

this term goes with period 5 because this is when the act took place.

the civil rights act helped many African americans gain equality.
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

This term best goes with time period 7 because he served office during that time.

Grover Cleveland had many accomplishments as president.
Dawes Severalty Act
Indian tribes that made law to resolve "indian issues"
Ex: hurtful to indians to get them to convert

Try to make them act like white men

The movement of tribes in 1887 places this in the 6th time period

The Dawes Severalty Act resulted in a massive loss of indians land.
Jim Crow Lawsterm-6
The name of a racial caste system which operated primarily in the souther states from 1877-1960
Ex: they were basically revised black codes

African Americans we're the second class citizens

this fits into the 7th time period because the segregation era was in place

The Jim Crow Laws spectated blacks and whites.
Trust/ Monopoly
created class of powerful wealthy men
Ex: above average Americans

The men who crated enterprises to establish money to gain power,

7th because the steel era was during this time.
J.P Morgan
A powerful business man who made lots of money and was an electrical engineer who eventually bought out Andrew Carnegie.
Homestead Act of 1862
the republican agenda that any citizen who was the head of a family could own land for really cheap or stay there for 5 years would get it
Ex: you pay a small fee to cultivate on someone else's land

easy land ownership

While populating the great plains this occurred in the 6th time period

The homestead act of 1862 allowed for affordable land access.
Social Darwinism
The philosophy that the rich have an obligation to maintain rich and to give back
Ex: basically the survival of the fittest in business

Andrew Carnegie argued for this

Fits into the 7th because the Steel Companies were at their climax during this time

Social Darwinism was an excuse to monopolies to take advantage of people
Wounded Knee
Indian Relations the end in violence
Ex: was a massacre nearly 200 indians dead

More indians than solders were killed

because of it happening in the 1890's, if fits into the 7th time period

It is sometimes refried to as the Massacre at Wounded Knee
Union and Confederate reasons for going to War
During the Civil War, The Union was the term used for the states that had chosen to stay united, and the Confederacy was referred to the states that had left the nation. Reasons for going to war were either to save the nation or destroy it.
Explanation: While the Union was trying to preserve the nation, the Confederacy was trying to tear it apart.

When a number of states refused to abide by the union laws, they became upset and left the nation.

Because the time of the War happen in int late 1800's, this fits into the 6th time period because at the time, slavery was an issue that was also breaking point in the nation.
Sen: The Union and Confederate reasons for going to War were not solely bases on slavery but rather property disputes.
Waving the "Bloody Shirt"
Waving the bloody shirt refers to the practice of politicians making references to martyrs or heroes.
Ex: When making a speech, Ben Butler of MA help up a shirt with the blood of a carpetbagger whipped by the KKK

Kinda like the idea of Julius Caesar's assignation, when Mark Anthony showed the crowed the rob he was killed in at his funeral

the idea has been around too long to contain into one time period.
Sen: When making a reference to a hero or martyr it is said that one it "waving the bloody shirt"
Andrew Carnegie
He was a Scottish american who led the expansion of the american steel industry in the late 19th century.
Open shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.

this term goes with time period 6 because that is when this can mostly be found

open shop is close in comparison to closed shop
Grange (Patrons of Husbandry)
Def: The National Grange of the Order of the Patron of Husbandry was founded in Washington, DC on December 4, 1867 Ex: Oliver Hudson Kelley, a Mason and a clerk with the Federal Bureau of Agriculture, and six other men. Des: Fraternal Organization in the United State which encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture.
Interstate Commerce Act
The product of the Washburn v. Illinois court case. Banned discrimination, railroad must report their rate schedules, and file them with the government. All rail rates have to be reasonable and just. The interstate commerce commission (ICC) was in charge of the act but they had to rely on the court to enforce it. It was not very effective, for 20 years the courts narrowly interpreted and enforced the act hazardly.
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

this term best goes with time period 6 because that is when it took place

the compromise of 1877 achieved many things politically.
Farmers' Allianceterm-10
Farmers were being abused by monopolist who needed railroad to transport their crops. Established facilities for their member of alliance independence. Created black farmers alliance, segregated south cause alliance to be disunited. Long term goal :bend economic competition for cooperation within the society. Organized own political party-the Populist Party
The gilded age
The period following the Civil War is known as the Gilded Age Ex: Glittering on the surface corrupt underneath.

7th time period because that was when the economy was growing

The Gilded Age was highlighted by the works of Samuel Clemens.
Sun Dance
is a ceremony practiced by some indians in hopes of a buffalo to return and the white race vanish.
Ex: Just a ritual that the Indians believed would come true

Those who continued to practice if were punished,

Put to a stop around 1909 by the us army so fitted into the 7th time period

the indians were hopeful for their livestock to return and replace the white men
Cornelius Vanderbilt
he was a very innovated businessman
Ex: he owned many railroading systems

he believes that the rich and wealthy had the obligation to withstand and uphold to their communities by maintaining wealth and power to continuer giving back

He did his most helping during the civil war so he fits into the 6th time period
social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

This term goes with period 5 because during the 1870's is when it was really put into effect.

Social Darwinism was founded by Charles Darwin.
Johnson's impeachment
Johnson used his power to counteract the congressional plan. The House Judiciary Committee initiated impeachment proceeding agains Johnson. Ex: Violating the Tenure of Office Act. President had to secure the consent of the Senate before removing his appointees one they'd been approved by that body.

Johnson had fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a Radical Republican. Really he was getting the way of Reconstruction. Johnson was acquitted by one vote, but rendered politically impotent. Served the last few months of presidency and retired.

In the 5th because that was the time of his violations.
Sen: Johnston's impeachment was a result of fighting the tide.
tweed ring
A group of people in New York City who worked with and for Burly "Boss" Tweed. He was a crooked politician and money maker. The ring supported all of his deeds. The New York Times finally found evidence to jail Tweed. Without Tweed the ring did not last. These people, the "Bosses" of the political machines, were very common in America for that time

this term goes with period 5 because this is when the tweed
ring occurred

Tweed was a man who set standards for business men, however, bad ones.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

This term goes with period 6 because that is when it took place

The Pendleton service act gave employees more freedom.
Horatio Alger
(1832-1899) American writer of inspirational adventure books featuring impoverished boys who through hard work and virtue achieve great wealth and respect. Supported the belief that in American one could rise from rags to riches.

This term best goes with time period 6 because that is when he did most of his work.

Horatio Alger had faith in the lower class.
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.

This term best goes with time period 7 because it was founded during this time.

The American railway union helped support workers throughout the nation.
Homestead steel strike
In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.

This term best goes with time period 7 because it took place during this time.

The homestead steel strike was intended to cause good but in return created more bad.
Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

This term best goes with time period 7 because that is when he did his most important work.

Andrew Carnegie helped shape American Industry.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

This term best goes with time period 7 because this is when it was written.

The gospel of wealth was filled with Andrew carnegie's ideas on wealth and status.
Spoils system
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.

This term best goes with time period 6 because this is when it was first introduced and carried out.

The Spoils System was introduced by Andrew Jackson.
Stalwarts
A faction of the Republican party in the ends of the 1800s Supported the political machine and patronage. Conservatives who hated civil service reform.

This term goes with time period 7 because this is when they were mostly recognized.

Stalwarts were not in favor of the civil service reform.
industrial union
a labor union that admits all workers in a given industry irrespective of their craft

this term best goes with time period 7 because that is when this term is most common

an industrial union had a great amount of workers with all kinds of different skills.
knights of labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed

this term best goes with time period 6 because that is when this movement took place.

the knights of labor was a very unorganized group trying to achieve an unclear goal.
closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.

This term best goes with time period 7 because that Is when this term was created.

a closed shop was very strategic and organized.
Ulysses S. Grant
An American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

This term best goes with time period 6 because that is when he achieved his accomplishments.

Ulysses S. Grant was general during the Civil War.
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.

This term best goes with time period 6 because that is when he published his book

Upton Sinclair was a highly esteemed writer
Sherman anti-trust act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

This term best goes with time period 7 because that is when it took place.

the sherman anti trust act was put into place for one reason yet was used for another.
Half Breeds
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.

This term best goes with time period 6 because this is when it was a pressing issue.

Half Breeds did not specify loyalty to the republicans or the democrats.
Eugene Debs
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.

this term best goes with time period 6 because that is when he founded two major reconstruction groups.

Eugene Debs was highly involved in politics
"yellow dog" contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.

This term best goes with time period 6 because that is what this term is most associated with.

Yellow dog contracts were a way for employers to keep their employees from joining the union.
reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

this term best goes with period 6 because this is when it took place.

Reconstruction was an effort to reunite the country after the civil war
American Railway Union
Post Civil war, Gilded Age. Lead by Eugene B. Debs. A group that supported the strike and refused to carry Pullman cars on their trains. Were persuaded to do so by Pullman's angry workers. Pullmans Strike: What George M. Pullman did: Pullman laid off workers and cut their wages Pullman refused to reduce rents. As a result 90% of people went on strike. Refused to lad or carry Pullmans Cars. Debs told Pullman's employees to quit their jobs or rebel.
panic of 1893

Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.

this term goes with time period 6 because that is when it occurred.
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.

this term goes with time period 6 because that is when it occurred.
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