The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably (p. 471).
out-group homogeneity effect
The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another (p. 471).
The belief that one's own culture of ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures (pp. 13, 471).
A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group (p. 470).
An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict (p. 468).
A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent (p. 466).
The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes (p. 465).
The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (p. 464).
The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event (p. 464).
blaming the victim
The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it (p. 464).
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures (p. 463).
The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for particular behavior (p. 463).
implicit personality theory
A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors (p. 461).
The "rules," or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation (p. 460).
The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics (p. 460).
Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, and reasoning (p. 460).
Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning (p. 460).
The mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people (p. 459).
Branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence or other people and by the social and physical environment (p. 458).
The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior (p. 458).
The mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment (p. 458).
sense of self
An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people (p. 458).
The deliberate attempts to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in situation in which that person has some freedom of choice (p. 489).
diffusion of responsibility
A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all onlookers (p. 487).
A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress (p. 487).
Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless (p. 486).
normative social influence
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval (p. 475).
Adjusting your opinions, or judgments so that it matches those of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation (p. 474).
Philip G. Zimbardo (b. 1933)
American social psychologist, known for his research on cognitive dissonance and social influence, and especially for the Stanford Prison Experiment, which demonstrated how situational forces can impact behavior (p. 468).
Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988)
American social psychologist who is best known for his Robbers Cave experiments to study prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes (p. 472).
Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority (p. 476).
Bibb Latane (b. 1937)
Contemporary American psychologist who, along with co-researcher John Darley, is best known for his pioneering studies of bystander intervention in emergency situations (p. 486).
John M. Darley (b. 1938)
Contemporary American social psychologist who, along with co-researcher Bibb Latane, is best known for his pioneering studies of bystander intervention in emergency situations (p. 486).