200 terms

APES Exam Review

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desalination
Removing salt from seawater is a process called _____.
zone of saturation
At a certain depth, the area where the spaces in soil and rock are completely filled with water is called the _____.
aquifer
The geological layer consisting of underground caverns and porous layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock that trap groundwater is called a(n) _____.
watershed
The land from which surface water drains into a particular lake, river or other body of water is called a(n) _____.
surface water
The freshwater from precipitation and melted snow that flows across the earth's land surface and into lakes, streams, wetlands, rivers, estuaries, and ultimately into the oceans, is called _____.
recharge area
When an area of land allows water to percolate down through it and into an aquifer, it is called a(n) _____.
transpiration
The process by which plants lose water out of their leaves is called _____.
percolation
Vertical and lateral movement of water through spaces between soil and rock layers is called _____.
tributary
A stream feeding into another stream is called a _____.
.024
What percentage of the world's water supply is liquid freshwater that is available to living organisms?
landfilling
In the United States, most municipal solid waste is disposed of by _____.
air pollution
Critics of incineration of municipal solid waste suggest that it may NOT be the best solution for the future because incineration contributes to ______.
recycled, less
An advantage of recycling aluminum rather than disposing of it in landfills is that aluminum can be produced by _____ metal using much _____ energy than is required for its production from iron ore.
b
Integrated waste management employs all of the following except...

a. using refillable soft-drink bottles
b. using disposable diapers instead of cloth diapers
c. using reusable canvas bags instead of plastic or paper bags
d. using tires for the construction of artificial reefs
e. redesigning automobiles to replace steel parts with aluminum and plastic parts
a
Regulations that deal directly with the disposal of hazardous materials in the United States include which of the following?

a. RCRA
b. Clean Water Act
c. Clean Air Act
d. The Montreal Protocol
e. NAFTA
c
Which if the following would not be considered a detritivore or decomposer in your ecocolumn decomposition chamber?

a. earthworm
b. pillbug (rolly poly)
c. spider
d. bacteria
e. fungus
d
Which of the following is NOT a reason we should care about the disappearance of the tropical rain forests?

a. their loss will reduce earth's biodiversity
b. their loss will accelerate atmospheric warming
c. their loss will change regional weather patterns
d. their loss will mean more places to build cities
e. their loss may push us beyond an ecological tipping point
municipal solid waste
Waste that includes paper, food wastes, cans, bottles, yard waste, glass, wood, and similar items is called _____ _____ _____.
hazardous waste
Waste that must be stored safely for many thousands of years is classified as _____ _____.
industrial waste
Waste from factories, mines and farms is classified as _____ _____.
waste management
Which term describes a way to deal with the creation of solid wastes by reducing the environmental impact without trying to reduce the amount of waste produced?

a. waste reduction
b. waste recycling
c. secondary pollution prevention
d. integrated waste management
e. waste management
integrated waste management
Integrated waste management focuses on...

a. only waste production
b. only waste recycling
c. disposal without environmental harm
d. disposal prevention
e. a variety of priorities to reduce, reuse and recycle
reuse
Taking a refillable coffee cup to the office and using it instead of throwaway cups is an example of
sanitary landfills
Areas where solid wastes are spread out in thin layers, compacted, and covered daily with a fresh layer of clay or plastic foam are called _____ _____.
biomimicry
When scientists study a termite mound to learn how to cool buildings naturally, they are using the science called
_____.
environmental justice
An ideal whereby every person is entitled to protection from environmental hazards regardless of race, gender, age, national origin, income, social class or any political factor is _____ _____.
secondary recycling
This type of recycling is when materials are converted into different products.
a
example of a product that is part of secondary or open-loop recycling

a. plastic bottle
b. aluminum can
c. food waste
d. batteries
e. yard waste
d
example of hazardous household waste

a. plastic bottle
b. aluminum can
c. food waste
d. batteries
e. yard waste
b
example of a waste product that can go through closed loop recycling

a. plastic bottle
b. aluminum can
c. food waste
d. batteries
e. yard waste
c
The largest fraction of wastes buried in American landfills is made up of:

a. plastics
b. food waste
c. paper
d. yard waste
e. metals
d
All of the following statements are true of solid wastes, EXCEPT:

a. No matter what we do, solid wastes will always be produced.
b. The USA produces more solid wastes per capita than any other country in the world.
c. Landfilling is the most common solid waste disposal option in the USA.
d.In order to significantly reduce solid waste generation, Americans will have to accept lower a standard of living.
e. Incineration is more expensive than landfilling.
e
Which of the following is not a characteristic of hazardous waste?

a. flammable
b. corrosive
c. explosive
d. chemically active
e. irritant
e
In the USA the largest fraction of the solid wastes is produced by...

a. individuals
b. the government
c. industries and businesses
d. farmers
e. mining
c
The concept of integrated waste management means:

a. an organized system to manage the solid waste produced
b. a system for combining the solid, liquid and gaseous wastes into a single stream for more efficient management
c. using both waste reduction and waste management approaches to deal with the solid waste problem
d. a system for introducing management principles into the solid waste industry
e
The first (highest) priority of integrated waste management includes all of the following except...

a. use products that are less harmful to humans and the environment
b. reduce packaging of products to a minimum
c. manufacture mostly reusable and recyclable products
d. change industrial processes to reduce and eliminate harmful chemicals
e. compost biodegradable wastes
a
The last stage and priority of the concept of integrated waste management are all of the following except...

a. reuse and recycle waste products
b. use landfills for waste disposal
c. waste incineration
d. use dilution and dispersal as a disposal option
e. use chemical treatment to reduce the toxicity of wastes
d
_____ how's the highest recycling rate in the United States.

a. aluminum cans
b. plastic PET bottles
c. newspapers
d. lead acid batteries
e. corrugated boxes
d
Which of these is generally not one of the benefits of recycling?

a. reduces the emission of greenhouse gases
b. reduces water and air pollution
c. helps protect biodiversity
d. it is the cheapest way to dispose of solid wastes
e. most people feel good about recycling
b
Close loop recycling refers to the type of recycling in which...

a. all the activities are carried out at the same site
b. waste can be recycled over and over into similar products
c. recycling were the energy generated is used to operate the facilities
e
One of the main disadvantages of recycling is:

a. recycled products of low-quality
b. recycling center significantly increase air pollution because they are unsightly and smell
c. Products the recycling tend to be more expensive
d. recycling is not a complete system because some things cannot be recycled
e. The process has a negative net energy value
e
Which of the following is not an advantage of solid waste incineration?

a. reduces the volume of wastes
b. produces useful energy
c. produces no water pollution
d. emissions of air pollutants can be minimized
e. can be located in an urban or residential area
e
all of the following are common disadvantages of solid waste incineration except:

a. start up costs are relatively high
b. incinerator ash is hazardous waste
c. operators of incineration facilities have built-in incentives to encourage increased waste production
d. incineration is noisy and often unsightly
e. incineration is less expensive than other methods
e
Landfilling of solid waste has many advantages except:

a. almost anything can be landfilled
b. costs less than other options
c. landfill site can be converted to other limited uses
d. suitable landfill sites are abundant in the USA
e. sanitary landfills are lined will never leak
c
All of the following statements are true of landfills except:

a. they release large amounts of greenhouse gases for a long time
b. they have the potential to contaminate groundwater
c. landfill leachate has less biodegradable materials than sewage
d. The wastes buried in landfills degrade very slowly
e. noise, dust, traffic, and vermin can be problems at landfill sites
e
The biodegradable wastes in the landfill can be expected to degrade and about:

a. five years
b. 10 years
c. 20 years
d. 40 years
e. 50 years or more
b
The primary long for dealing with hazardous waste issues in the USA is:

a. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
b. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
c. The Superfund Act
unknown
The largest generation of hazardous waste in the USA is

a. Chemical companies
b. The oil petroleum companies
c. The military
d. agribusinesses in the lawn care companies
e. coal mining companies
d
Which one of these will not qualify as hazardous waste when discarded?

a. house paint
b. pain relievers like Tylenol
c. brake fluid
d. sewage sludge
e. Duracell batteries used in toys
c
Phytoremediation refers to the use of

a. Photoelectric cells to destroy hazardous wastes
b. enzymes and bacteria to destroy hazardous wastes
c. plants to absorb contaminants from the soil or water
d. high energy sources like lasers to destroy hazardous wastes
e. none of the above
a
One of the following statements is not true of phytoremediation:

a. is a very expensive process
b. it can be affected at shallow depth only
c. requires less energy than most other methods
d. it is relatively easy to establish
e. it is not applicable to all hazardous wastes
b
which of the following is not a method to reduce the output of solid waste?

a. increase the efficiency of manufacturing processes
b. design products that have built-in obsolescence
c. eliminate or reduce packaging
d. Institute a pay-as-you-throw collection system
e. move from a materials flow to service flow economy
d
All of the following are advantages of deep well injection of hazardous waste except:

a. compared to other methods it is not very expensive
b. it is applicable to most types of hazardous wastes
c. it is safe as long as site is properly chosen
d. they injected wastes can never escape from the site
e. injected wastes can be pumped out problems if develop later
d
Which one of these statements is not true of municipal waste incineration?

I. produce small amounts of chlorinated organics like PCBs and dioxin
II. heavy metals are the main toxic components of the ash
III. The energy produced can offset the full cost of the process

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I & II only
e. II & III only
c
The dirty dozen is a list of...

a. 12 most polluting landfills in the USA
b. The sites of the 12 most polluting oil spills in the world
c. 12 most polluting organic chemicals that tend to bioaccumulate
d. The 12 most contaminated contaminated Superfund sites
e. The 12 most polluting heavy metals found in groundwater
a
Leachate from municipal waste landfills are often pretreated before it can be allowed at sewage treatment plants because:

I. The nutrient content is too high
II. contains heavy metals which are toxic to bacteria
III. it may contain toxic organics

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and III only
e. I, II, and III
d
Which of the following is not a method used to dispose of or reduce hazardous waste?

a. plasma arc
b. deep well injection
c. surface impoundments
d. substituting hazardous materials for non-hazardous materials
e. Chemical neutralization
sludge
deposit solids at settle out from wastewater during the treatment process
Point sources
discharge pollutants at specific locations through drainpipes, ditches or sewer lines into bodies of surface water
septic tank
A tank that separates solid waste from liquids and that has bacteria that breakdown the solid waste
aeration
The process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance
eutrophication
natural enrichment (mostly nitrates and phosphates) of a shallow lake, estuary, or slow-moving stream from natural erosion and runoff from surrounding land
cultural eutrophication
over nourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants
influent
waste water coming into the treatment plant
aquifer
porous, water saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock that can yield a significant amount of water
US safe drinking water act of 1974
EPA set standards for drinking water quality and oversees the states, localities, and water suppliers to implement those standards
agricultural activities
leading cause of water pollution
secondary sewage treatment
it biological process in which aerobic bacteria remove as much is 90% of dissolved and biodegradable, oxygen demanding organic wastes
watershed
land area that delivers water, sediment, and dissolved substances via small streams to a major stream or river
groundwater
water that sinks into the soil and fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
tertiary or advanced sewage treatment
specialized chemical and physical processes that reduce the amount of specific pollutants left in wastewater after primary and secondary treatments
primary sewage treatment
A physical process that uses screens and a grit tank to remove large floating objects and to allow solids such a sand and rock to settle out
water pollution
any physical or chemical change in surface water or groundwater that can harm living organisms or make water unfit for certain uses
activated sludge tank
designed to facilitate the decomposition of organic material by aerobic micro organisms. After several hours, the particles and micro organisms are allowed to settle out and methane gas is collected.
Nonpoint sources
broad, and diffuse areas, rather than points, from which pollutants enter bodies of surface water or air
effluent
wastewater that has been treated and cleaned and is leaving the treatment plant
oligotrophic
Lake type used to describe bodies of water characterized by low amounts of nutrients in proportion to their total volume of water
e
which of the following is an effective alternative to chlorine for disinfecting waste water at a municipal treatment plant?

a. freon
b. alcohol
c. phosphate
d. mercury
e. ozone
b
The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in a sample of river water suggests which of the following?

a. The pH of the river is very high
b. The water is contaminated with animal waste
c. The river is devoid of plant life
d. dissolved oxygen level of the river is high
e. Fish caught from the river will be free of parasites
c
which of the following components of a waste water treatment plant is designed to facilitate the decomposition of organic material by aerobic microorganisms?

a. bar screen
b. grit settling tank
c. activated sludge tank
d. chlorination tank
e. ultraviolet-light array
polar ice caps and glaciers
The greatest amount of freshwater is found in...
transpiration
The process in the hydrologic cycle in which water vapor is released from leaves into the atmosphere is called _____.
2.5
What percent of the total water on Earth is considered to be fresh water?
e
Most of the earth's fresh water is not available for use by humans because of what reason?

a. It is polluted with mercury
b. It is too far underground
c. It is too salty
d. It has traces of radioactivity
e. It is frozen
e
Artificial lakes created when humans dam up rivers, are called:

a. aquifers
b. aqueducts
c. recharge areas
d. estuaries
e. reservoirs
c
Sediment pollution is made up of all of the following except:

a. sand
b. silt
c. plastic
d. soil
e. clay
d
Why is air bubbled through the aeration tanks during the secondary step of sewage treatment?

a. oxygen in the air converts to ozone and kills pathogenic organisms
b. air is used to help speed up the sedimentation process
c. air is used to help lower the turbidity levels in the water
d. oxygen in the air helps to encourage the rapid growth of bacteria which remove dissolved solids
e. Air in the water helps to reduce the temperature in the water which, in turn, decreases biological activity
a
Which of the following is not one of the benefits of damming a river?

a. blocking the migration pattern of indigenous fish
b. producing large amounts of carbon free, renewable electricity
c. preventing the downstream flooding of farms and cities
d. creating a reservoir which provides boating and swimming recreation
e. providing a dependable water supply for farmers and city dwellers
b
In sewage water, ammonia comes from...

a. feces
b. urine
c. fertilizer run off
d. industrial chemical spills
e. food products
agriculture
Most of the world's fresh water is used for _____.
separating
Primary sewage treatment is mostly a physical process of _____ solids and liquids.
aquifers
Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock and sand are known as _____.
d
Over half of the total mass of pollutants entering streams and lakes comes from...

a. Point source pollution from sewage treatment plants
b. Point source pollution from industrial plants
c. Nonpoint source pollution from roadside run off and construction
d. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture
e. Point source pollution from power plants
a
Why aren't desalination and reverse osmosis used more widely to produce fresh water from the ocean?

a. because they are expensive and require a lot of energy
b. The water produced has a nasty, brackish taste
c. The technology is unreliable and unproven
d. Most countries on earth do you not have easy access to ocean water
e. water companies feel that more fresh far is available in the open market the price for fall and many water companies will go bankrupt
e
You would probably not water which of the following with reclaimed water?

a. golf course
b. freeway landscaping
c. Grass at a local park
d. A crop of carrots at a nearby farm
e. a natural aquifer recharge area
infiltration
What is the downward movement of water through the soil called?
methane
When sludge is digested using bacteria, what important gas is produced that can be used to produce electricity?
a
Which of the following is a non-point source of water pollution?

a. A forest which has been logged in several different spots
b. A sewage treatment plant pumping effluent into a nearby river
c. An industrial factory dumping mercury waste into a nearby lake
d. An electrical generating plant heated water into the ocean
e. A single large mine allowing acids to drain into a nearby estuary
e
Which of the following is an effective alternative to chlorine for disinfecting wastewater in a municipal treatment plant?

a. freon
b. alcohol
c. phosphate
d. ammonia
e. ozone
c
If wastewater treatment plant effluent that contains nitrates and phosphates is allowed to flow into a body of water, which of the following may result?

a. chlorination
b. decomposition
c. eutrophication
d. oxygenation
e. methylation
c
As urbanization increases and natural soil surfaces are covered, the groundwater supply is reduced to...

a. increased evaporation and transpiration
b. decreased surface runoff
c. loss of recharge area
d. confinement of aquifers
e.capping of artisan wells
b
Which of the following methods of agricultural irrigation results in the loss of the least amount of water by evaporation?

a. conventional center-pivot irrigation
b. drip irrigation
c. laser level irrigation
d. flood irrigation
e. gravity flow irrigation
c
Which of the following components of a wastewater treatment plant is designed to facilitate the decomposition of organic material by aerobic microorganisms?

a. bar screen
b. grit settling tank
c. activated sludge tank
d. chlorination tank
e. ultraviolet light array
c
Economic benefits of building large dams include which of the following?

I. Storage of water used for agriculture and domestic use
II. controlling floods upstream
III. production a renewable energy

a. I only
b. II only
c. I and III only
d. II and III only
e. I, II and III
a
Which the following is the best explanation for the fact that agricultural production on floodplains is often relatively high?

a. on floodplains soils tend to be nutrient rich and fertile.
b. on floodplains high water tables make irrigation unnecessary.
c. periodic flooding leaches toxic pollutants out of floodplain soils.
d. periodic flooding prevents pH of floodplain soils from becoming too high.
e. Floodplains are usually sparsely settled and thus more acreage is available for agriculture.
d
Which if the following is the usual cause of cultural eutrophication on the surface waters of both developed and developing countries?

a. lack of proper filtration devices for power plant effluents
b. introduction of cyanobacteria to streams and rivers
c. run off of metal ions into bodies of water
d. run off of a nitrate compounds in bodies of water
e. run off of herbicides into bodies of water
d
Overuse of groundwater in coastal areas would most likely result in which of the following?

a. rise in water table
b. increase in streamflow
c. bacterial contamination of surface water
d. saltwater intrusion
transpiration
The process in the hydrologic cycle in which water vapor is released from leaves into the atmosphere is called _____.
e
Which of the following is a common characteristic of lakes undergoing cultural eutrophication?

a. decreased rates of sediment accumulation
b. decreased amounts of green and blue-green algae
c. increased levels of oxygen throughout the water column
d. increased water clarity in the upper layer of the lake
e. increased levels of plant nutrients
a
Which of the following is most likely to increase both the nutrient levels and the bacterial content of lake water?

a. runoff from a nearby hog farm
b. thermal pollution from a nearby power plant
c. increase aeration of the lake water
d. percolation of the water through soil to groundwater
e. acidification of the lake by acid deposition
true
True or False:

Although the world's tropical rain forests are only about 2% of the earth's land surface, they contain at least 50% of the world's land plant and animal species.
false
True or False:

Only about 14% of the tropical rain forests have been destroyed or disturbed at this point.
false
True or False:

Greenhouse gases, including methane, CO2, and water vapor, make up 30% of the earth's troposphere.
true
True or False:

While the troposphere is 11 miles thick above sea level at the tropics, it is only four miles thick above the North and South poles.
true
True or False:

All life is based on the power of the sun.
false
True or False:

The "greenhouse effect" is a strictly artificial (human-made) phenomenon.
false
True or False:

A "trophic level" refers to the ability of an organism to survive outside the optimum range in a range of tolerance.
true
True or False:

An ecosystem is defined as a community of different populations of species interacting with one another and their nonliving environment.
true
True or False:

Most producers capture sunlight to produce energy rich carbohydrates through photosynthesis.
false
True or False:

Autotroph is another word for a consumer in a trophic system.
false
True or False:

Transfer of energy through food chains or webs is very efficient making, a lot of energy available to organisms.
true
True or False:

The larger the number of trophic levels in a food chain or web, the greater the accumulated loss of energy.
true
True or False:

The reason we observe a "pyramid" of energy flow instead of an energy flow "cube" is because the low ecological efficiency of a biological systems limits the number of organisms in the higher trophic levels.
true
True or False:

A larger number of humans could be supported on the earth if more of them consumed grains, vegetables and fruit rather than eating meat.
false
True or False:

Gross primary productivity is the biomass produced by photosynthesis minus the rate at which biomass is used for aerobic respiration.
true
True or False:

Nutrient cycles connect past, present, and future forms of life.
true
True or False:

The hydrologic cycle is a way nature renews water quality.
true
True or False:

In hundreds of years we have released large quantities of fossil fuels that took millions of years to form.
true
True or False:

Because carbon makes up such a small amount of the earth's atmosphere, even a small change, caused by nature or by humans, affects the earth's climate.
false
True or False:

Organisms that complete he final breakdown and recycling of organic materials from he remains of all organisms are called decomposers.
true
True or False:

Photosynthesis is the opposite of respiration.
true
True or False:

Each trophic level in a food chain or web contains a certain amount of organic matter, called biomass.
true
True or False:

Ecologists make use of remote sensing devices and geographic information system software in their study of nature.
false
True or False:

The extreme desert ecosystem produces the highest net primary productivity per year.
true
True or False:

Pollution such as the Asian Brown Cloud can be cleared up fairly quickly when standards are set for coal-burning industries.
false
True or False:

Carbon dioxide makes up 21% of the air we breathe.
true
True or False:

The troposphere contains approximately 75-80% of the earth's air mass.
false
True or False:

Air pollutants only come from human-made sources.
false
True or False:

Chemicals in the atmosphere combine with one another and with natural components of air to form new, harmful chemicals called primary pollutants.
true
True or False:

Over the past 30 years, the quality of outdoor air in most developed countries has greatly improved.
true
True or False:

The biggest pollution threat to poor people is indoor air pollution caused by burning of wood, charcoal, coal or dung in open fires in their houses.
false
True or False:

Secondary pollutants can be classified by the source of pollution, such as stationary sources or mobile sources.
true
True or False:

There is considerable scientific evidence that human activities have resulted in increasing levels of CO2 and the warming of the earth's climate.
true
True or False:

Photochemical smog is a mixture of primary and secondary pollutants formed under the influence of UV radiation from the sun.
true
True or False:

The chance of getting lung cancer from radon gas is much higher if you are a smoker or a former smoker.
e
The Asian Brown Cloud is approximately the size of

a. Tibet
b. Shanghai
c. India
d. China and India
e. continental U.S.
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
List the correct sequence of layers of the atmosphere from innermost to outermost.
d
The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth's air is the...

a. thermosphere
b. mesosphere
c. stratosphere
d. troposphere
e. tropopause
99
Approximately how much of the air we breather is composed of nitrogen and oxygen?
a
Most of the earth's climate occurs in the

a. troposphere
b. thermosphere
c. mesosphere
d. stratosphere
e. tropopause
d
Most of the ozone layer is found in which of the following?

a. thermosphere
b. mesosphere
c. thermopause
d. stratosphere
e. troposphere
primary pollutants
Harmful chemicals emitted directly into the air from natural processes and human activities are called _____ _____.
d
Human inputs of outdoor air pollutants occur mostly...

a. in rural areas
b. in the mountains
c. along the oceans
d. in urban areas
e. in the deserts
c
The biggest air pollution threat to poor people is...

a. badly maintained automobiles
b. pollutants from industry
c. indoor air pollution
d. smoke from burning forests
e. dust blown into the air
d
Which of the following is NOT one of the major air pollutants?

a. suspended particulate matter
b. sulfur dioxide
c. nitrogen oxides
d. formaldehyde
e. ozone
a
What do all the volatile compounds have in common?

a. All are carbon based.
b. All are produced from manmade sources.
c. All are emitted form processing and/or burning fossil fuels.
d. All are colorless, odorless reactive gases.
e. All are naturally occurring colorless and odorless gases found in rocks and vegetation.
a
Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants interact with...

a. sunlight
b. water vapor
c. sulfur dioxide
d. oxygen
e. carbon
c
Photochemical smog is characteristic of urban areas with many vehicles and a climate that is...

a. cool, wet, and cloudy
b. cool, dry, and sunny
c. warm, dry, and sunny
d. warm, wet, and cloudy
e. warm, wet, and sunny
d
Primary pollutants from burning coal include all of the following except...

a. carbon monoxide
b. sulfur dioxide
c. soot
d. ozone
e. carbon dioxide
c
Gray-air smog comes from suspended particles of...

a. carbon dioxide
b. ammonium salts
c. soot
d. carbonic acid
e. ozone
5.6
Acid rain, snow, fog, and cloud vapor typically have a pH of ...
d
Which of the following would not be an effective preventive measure for acid deposition?

a. reduce coal use
b. burn low sulfur fuel
c. switch to natural gas or renewable energy resources
d. adding lime to neutralize the acids
e. remove SO2 and NOx from motor vehicle exhausts
c
Respiratory illnesses in developing countries are most likely to be caused by...

a. formaldehyde
b. cigarette smoke
c. particulate matter
d. asbestos
e. chloroform
e
How many people in the United States die each year from air pollution related reasons?

a. 25,00 to 30,000
b. 50,000 to 66,000
c. 75,000 to 110,000
d. 100,000 to 175,000
e. 125,000 to 350,000
e
In the United Sates, how many people get cancer from breathing diesel fumes from buses and trucks?

a. 10,000
b. 50,000
c. 75,000
d. 100,000
e. 125,000
c
According to environmental scientists, all of the following would strengthen U.S. air pollution control law, except:

a. greater emphasis on prevent air pollution
b. sharply reduce emissions from older coal-burning power plants
c. relax controls on petroleum refineries
d. improve fuel efficiency standards on motor vehicles
e. stricter air pollution regulations on airports and ocean going ships
d
If earth had no atmosphere, the main surface temperature would approximately be -15°C. With our present atmosphere earths mean surface temperature is approximately +15°C. Which of the following is the best explanation for this difference?

a. reflection of incident solar radiation by clouds
b. scattering of visible radiation by aerosols
c. absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer
d. absorption of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases
e. the breakdown of oxygen molecules in the thermosphere
e
Ground-level ozone in most major united states cities results primarily from...

a. Burning coal
b. Burning fuel for cooking
c. producing electric power
d. industrial emissions
e. Motor vehicle exhaust
e
Which of the following best illustrates point source pollution?

a. toxic sediments in the delta of a major river
b. increase in nitrogen dioxide in a traffic clogged city
c. dust blowing off unpaved roads
d. smoke emitted from forest fires
e. smokestack emissions from a large smelting company
b
Of the following cities, which regularly experiences the worst levels of photochemical smog that is enhanced by thermal inversions?

a. New York City, New York
b. Los Angeles, California
c. Portland, Oregon
d. Atlanta, Georgia
e. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
c
Which of the following would not be considered a detritivore or decomposer in your eco-column decomposition chamber?

a. earthworm
b. pill bug (roly-poly)
c. spider
d. bacteria
e. fungus
d
Which of the following is not a reason we should care about the disappearance of the tropical rain forests?

a. their loss will reduce Earth's biodiversity
b. their loss will accelerate atmospheric warming
c. their loss will change regional weather patterns
d. their loss will mean more places to build cities
e. their loss may push us beyond an ecological tipping point
c
Ozone gas in the lower part of the stratosphere filters out how much of the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation?

a. 33%
b. 20%
c. 95%
d. 67%
e. 10%
a
Which of the following is not a major component of the earth's life support system?

a. unisphere
b. atmosphere
c. hydrosphere
d. geosphere
e. biosphere
d
Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the...

a. unisphere
b. atmosphere
c. hydrosphere
d. geosphere
e. biosphere
b
An autotroph is the same as a...

a. decomposer
b. producer
c. herbivore
d. carnivore
e. scavenger
d
All physical forms of water (solid, liquid, and gas) make up the...

a. atmosphere
b. lithosphere
c. biosphere
d. hydrosphere
e. troposphere
e
The parts of the earth's air, water, and soil where life is found is called the...

a. organism
b. population
c. Community
d. ecosystem
e. biosphere
e
High quality energy is constantly...

a. being made
b. being recycled
c. being destroyed
d. becoming matter
e. becoming low-quality energy
b
Life on Earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling of matter, and...

a. cycling of energy
b. one-way flow of high-quality energy
c. one-way flow of matter
d. The distraction of energy
e. The consumption of matter
d
Ecology is the study of...

a. human impact on the environment
b. The abiotic elements of the environment
c. The biotic elements of the environment
d. how organisms interact with each other in the nonliving environment
e. how evolution formed populations
b
Which of the following is not an abiotic component of an ecosystem?

a. nutrients
b. microbes
c. water
d. Solar energy
e. Air
c
Groups of different species living together in a particular place with a potential for interacting with one another is called a(n)...

a. organism
b. population
c. community
d. ecosystem
e. biosphere
3
Let's visit the terrestrial chamber in your ecocolumn. If the grass is able to capture light and create a biomass that contains 300 kg calories, and then is eaten by your grasshopper which, in turn, is eaten by your spider, how many calories out of the original 300 will be available to the spider?
b
Which of the following is not a type of consumer?

a. decomposer
b. producer
c. omnivore
d. carnivore
e. detritivore
d
Organisms that feed only on plants are called...

a. detritivores
b. omnivores
c. carnivores
d. herbivores
e. decomposers
a
The very necessary process of breaking down the dead bodies of organisms is a function of...

a. detritivores
b. omnivores
c. carnivores
d. herbivores
e. producers
e
Organisms that complete the final breakdown and recycling of organic materials from the remains of all organisms are the...

a. detritivores
b. omnivores
c. carnivores
d. herbivores
e. decomposers
chemosynthesis
Specialized bacteria can produce their own food from inorganic compounds in the environment without the use of sunlight. This process is called...
b
Aerobic respiration requires...

a. glucose and carbon dioxide
b. glucose and oxygen
c. oxygen and water
d. Carbon dioxide and water
e. Carbon dioxide and oxygen
food webs
Complex networks of interconnected food chains are called _____ _____.
biomass
Each trophic level in a food chain or food web contains a certain amount of organic matter, called _____.
e
The typical percentage of high quality energy loss in transfers from one trophic level to the next is about...

a. 1%
b. 5%
c. 35%
d. 60%
e. 90%
d
Which of the following terrestrial ecosystems or life zones produces the highest net primary productivity per year?

a. temperate forest
b. savanna
c. tundra
d. swamps and marshes
e. extreme desert
e
Generally, food chains are short consisting of three or four trophic levels. Which of the following is the best explanation of why food chains are so short?

a. Most ecosystems do not have a large number of species in order to make longer food chains.
b. The fluids inside of organisms cannot be efficiently transferred from one organism to the next.
c. Because of the first law of thermodynamics which says energy cannot be created or destroyed but only change form
d. Most animals are not efficient predators.
e. Large amounts of energy are lost as you move from one trophic level to the next.
water
The hydrologic cycle is the movement of _____.
a
Which of the following is not one of the major processes of the water cycle?

a. lunar tides
b. evaporation
c. transpiration
d. precipitation
e. all of these are major processes
b
Which biogeochemical cycle does not have a gaseous state?

a. nitrogen cycle
b. phosphorus cycle
c. sulfur cycle
d. carbon cycle
e. water cycle
c
Carbon is a major component of...

a. water
b. the oceans
c. organic compounds
d. the atmosphere
e. hydrologic cycle
e
Ecologists would make use of which of the following in their study of nature?

a. field research
b. geographic information system software
c. controlled experiments
d. remote sensing devices
e. all of these
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