40 terms

AP Psych Ch. 11 - Motivation & Emotion

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Motivation
any internal condition, although usually an internal one, that initates, activates, or maintains an organism's goal directed behavior
Drive theory (aka, drive-reduction theory)
an explanation of behavior that assumes that an organism is motivated to act because of a need to attain, reestablish, or maintain some goal that helps with survival
Drive
an internal aroused condition that directs an organism to satisfy a physiological need
Need
State of physiological imbalance usually accompanied by arousal
Homeostasis
Maintenance of a constant state of inner stability or balance
Conflict
The emotional state or condition that arises when a person must choose between two or more competing motives, behaviors, or impulses
Approach-approach conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose between two attractive alternatives
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose between two distasteful alternatives
Approach-avoidance conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose an alternative that has both attractive and unappealing aspects
Arousal
Activation of the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the muscles and glands
Cognitive theories
In the study of motivation, an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.
Expectancy Theories
Explanations of behavior that focus on people's expectations about reaching a goal and their need for achievement as energizing factors
Motive
a specific (usually internal) condition, usually involving some form of arousal, which directs an organism's behavior toward a goal.
Social Need
An aroused condition that directs people to behave in ways that allow them to feel good about themselves and others and to establish and maintain relationships
Extrinsic motivation
Motivation supplied by rewards that come from the external environment
Intrinsic motivation
Motivation that leads to behaviors engaged in for no apparent reward except the pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself
Overjustification effect
Decrease in likelihood that an intrinsically motivated task, after having been extrinsically rewarded, will be performed when the reward is no longer given.
Humanistic theory
An explanation of behavior that emphasizes the entirety of life rather than individual components of behavior and focuses on human dignity, individual choice, and self-worth
Self-actualization
In humanistic theory, the final level of psychological development, in which one strives to realize one's uniquely human potential-to achieve everything one is capable of achieving
Excitement phase
the first phase of the sexual response cycle during which there are increases in heart rate blood pressure and respiration
Vasocongestion
In the sexual response cycle, engorgement of the blood vessels, particularly in the genital area, due to increased blood flow
Plateau phase
the second phase of the sexual response cycle, during which physical arousal continues to increase as the partners bodies prepare for orgasm
Orgasm phase
the third phase of the sexual response cycle, during which autonomic nervous system activity reaches its peak and muscle contractions occur in spasms throughout the body, but especially in the genital area
Resolution Phase
the fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, following orgasm, during which the body returns to its resting, or normal state
Survey
One of the descriptive methods of research; it requires construction of a set of questions to administer to a group of participants
Representative sample
A sample that reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn
Need for achievement
A social need that directs a person to strive constantly for excellence and success
Self-efficacy
The belief that a person can successfully engage in and execute a specific behavior
Emotion
A subjective response, usually accompanied by a physiological change, which is interpreted n a particular way by the individual and often leads to a change in behavior
Appraisal
the evaluation of the significance of a situation or event as it relates to a person's well-being
motive
a need or want that causes someone to act
instinct
inherited, automatic species-specific behaviors
set point
preset natural body weight, determined by the number of fat cells in the body
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder most common in adolescent females characterized by weight less than 85% of normal, restricted eating, and unrealistic body image
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by pattern 9of eating binges followed by purging (e.g., vomiting, laxatives, exercise)
James-Lange theory of emotion
conscious experience of emnotion results from one's awareness of physiological arousal
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
conscious experience of emotion and physiological arousal occur at the same time
opponent-process theory of emotion
following a strong emotion, an opposing emotion counters the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotion; on repeated occasions, the opposing emotion becomes stronger
Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
we determine our emotion based on our physiological arousal, then label that emotion according to our explanation for that arousal
cognitive-appraisal theory of emotion
our emotional experience depends on our interpretation of the situation we are in
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