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35 terms

Population Ecology--Chapter 4

4.1 Studying Ecology 4.2 Describing Populations 4.3 Population Growth
STUDY
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biosphere
All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems and biomes
ecosystem
A community of organisms and their abiotic environment
organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
community
A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat-plants and animals
habitat
the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives
biotic factor
any living part of an environment
abiotic factor
a nonliving part of an ecosystem
limiting factor
an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing
carrying capacity
the maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources
niche
organism's role, or job, in its habitat
population dynamics
the study of changes in birth rate, death rate, and migration that affect the total number of organisms in a given ecosystem
environment
the circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms as well as the complex of social or cultural conditions that affect an individual or community
ecology
the study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environments
resource
anything an organism needs, including nutrients, shelter, breeding sites, and mates
population size
describes the number of individual organism present in a given population at a given time
population density
describes the number of individuals within a population per unit area
population distribution
describes how organisms are arranged within an area
age structure
describes the relative numbers of organism of each age within a population
sex ratio
a populations proportion of males to females
survivorship curve
graph that shows the likelihood of death at various ages
immigration
arrival of individuals from outside a given area
emigration
departure of individuals from a given area
migration
seasonal movement into and out of an area
exponential growth
population increases by a fixed percentage each year
logistic growth
describes how a populations initial exponential increase is slowed and finally stopped by limiting factors
density-dependent factor
limiting factors whose influence changes with population density
density-independent factor
limiting factors whose influence is not affected by population density
biotic potential
maximum ability to produce offspring in ideal conditions
natality
birth rate
mortality
death rate
gestation time
the period of development of a mammal, from fertilization until birth
generation time
average time between one generation of offspring and the next
biome
A group of ecosystems classified by climate and plant life