43 terms

Chapter 4 & 5

Protective Tariff
taxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally
Laissez Faire
absence of government control over private business
official rights given by the government to an inventor for the exclusive right to develop, use, and sell an invention for a set period of time
Bessmer Process
method used to make steel more effectively
Mass Production
production of goods in large number through the use of machinery and assembly lines
company recognized as a legal unit that has rights and liabilities separate from each of its members
exclusive control by one company over an entire industry
John D. Rockefeller
oil tycoon
Horizontal Integration
system of consolidating many firms in the same business
group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board in order to form a monopoly
Andrew Carnegie
steel tycoon
Vertical Integration
system of consolidating firms involved in all steps of a product's manufacture
Social Darwinism
the belief held by some in the late nineteenth century that certain nations and races were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them
Sherman Antitrust Act
outlawed any trust that operated "in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states"
small, hot, dark, and dirty workhouses
Company Town
community whose residents rely upon one company for jobs, housing, and shopping
Collective Bargaining
process in which employers negotiate with labor unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions
system or theory under which the means of production are publicly controlled and regulated rather than owned by individuals
Knight of Labor
labor union that sought to organize all workers and focused on broad social reforms
Terence V. Powderly
leader of the Knights of Labor
Samuel Gompers
Founder/leader of the AFL
labor union that organized skilled workers in specific trades and made small demands rather than seeking broad changes
Haymarket Riot
1886 labor-related protestin Chicago which ended in deadly violence
Homestead Strike
1892 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for five years
Eugene V. Debs
leader of the American Railway Union
Pullman Strike
violent 1894 railway workers' strike which began outside Chicago and spread nationwide
New Immigrant
immigrants from southern and eastern Europe
Ellis Island
island in New York Harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving in the U.S.
Angel Island
Immigration processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in 1910
belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens
belief that native-born white Americans are superior to newcomer
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers
expansion of cities; when people move from rural areas to urban areas
very tall building
Mass Transit
public transportation systems that carry large numbers of people
residential areas surrounding a city
multistory building divided into apartments to house as many families as possible
Mark Twain
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)
Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Conspicuous Consumption
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
Mass Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports
Joseph Pulitzer
creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.