Terms in this set (48)
PNS & CNS
Major division of nervous system
Sympathetic Nervous System
Prepares the body for fight or flight
Monitors the internal environment. Autonomic functions-heart rate, digestive function and urinary function
The number of spinal nerves
Nutritional requirements of the nervous system
Sodium and potassium are needed throughout life to maintain resting membrane potentials
Effects of aging on cognitive function
Cognitive ability declines in old age. Reaction times become slow as neurons become less efficient
Detects touch, vibration, stretch and pressure
Detects tissue injury
Infection of the outer ear canal
When the head is motionless
When the head is moving
Fluid pressure in the eye that damages the optic nerve
A progressive, painless loss of vision due to the clouding of the lens of the eye
Pituitary Gland Hormones
FSH, LH, TSH, Growth Hormone
Pineal Gland hormone
Hormone that regulates testosterone and ovulation
LH and FSH
-Stimulates cells to break down glycogen into glucose
-stimulates cells to convert noncarbohydrates into glucose
What happens to blood sugar after eating
What happens to blood sugar after not eating for awhile
What happens to hormone levels at puberty
Production of GnRH in boys and girls,
-LH surge in boys. and
melatonin levels drop 75% before puberty.
Causes kidneys to conserve water; in high concentration, increases blood pressure
Glucose in urine
a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Causes polydipsia and polyuria
Red blood cells. Carry oxygen, carbon dioxide and acids
-forms 33% of RBC volume
A single DNA base mutation that changes one amino acid in the protein part of hemoglobin, causing hemoglobin to crystallize in low-oxygen environment. This bends the RBC into a sickle shape
RDA of Iron
Important nutrients for erythropoiesis
Vitamin B6 Vitamin B2
Nutrient important for hemoglobin
Organs that remove red blood cells
Liver and Spleen
based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood ells (RBCs).
White Blood Cells
are the cells of the immune system that are involved in defending the body against both infectious disease.
normal white blood cell count
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Cardiac muscle is characterized by striped muscle fibers, connected together by intercolated disks, where the membranes are specialized to allow electrical signals to pass easily
CO=HR x SV
Cardiac output equation
Normal Blood Pressure
less than 120 systolic and less than 80 diastolic
The build-up of fatty deposits with in the walls of the arteries that reduces the size of lumen and restricts blood flow.
The force of blood against vessel walls.
-dependent on cardiac output, blood volume & resistance
Muscles used for respiration
Diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles
the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath during resting conditions
breaks down starch and glycogen into simple sugars.
the absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestine.
-failure to produce or utilize intrinsic factor results in the condition pernicious anemia.
Nutrients absorbed by large intestines
A condition diabetics may suffer from
Hyperventilation can cause?
carbon dioxide to be released in large amounts causing respirations to increase.
Can also cause a alkalosis (rise in pH)
Hormones that regulate urine production
ADH, ANH, Aldosterone
How is caffeine a diuretic
Increases blood flow to kidney