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Terms in this set (71)
What are joints?
articulations where bones meet
the structure of joints are based on?
type of CT involved, presence/absence of fluid-filled space between bones
What is fibrous joints?
dense regular CT Bones united by collagenic fibers
What is synovial?
space filled with synovial fluid
What are the functions of joints?
stability, movement, bone growth
slightly movable joints
freely movable joints
What are sutures?
seams between bones
What are syndesmoses?
bones connected by ligaments
What are gomphoses?
Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets.. only full in skull or teeth
What are cartilaginous joints?
two bones tightly connected by cartilage, eg ribs and sternum. Allow little movement.. bones held together by cartilage
What is synchondroses?
bones joined by hyaline cartilage
What is synarthroric?
epiphyseal plates in long bones of children that eventually become immovable
What is symphyses?
Bones united by fibrocartilage which allow for slight flexion
All synovial joints are ?
diarthroses (Allow movement)
What are synovial joints?
Free moving joints that are surrounded by joint capsules.
What does hyaline cartilage do?
covers opposing ends of bones
functions of synovial joints
lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
Outer fibrous layer
dense irregular connective tissue.. holds bone together
what is the synovial membrane?
Loose areolar connective tissue. produces synovial fluid and secretes it. provides nutrients, waste removal, gas exchange
characteristics of synovial fluid
moves nutrients in and out of cartilage and lubricates it
outside the capsule
deep to capsule and covered w synovial membrane
What does adipose tissue do?
Provides padding in empty spaces surrounded by blood supply
Where is adipose tissue in the joints?
hip and knee
turning the sole of the foot outward
moving a body part forward (tongue sticking out)
turning the palm downward
pulling back (putting tongue back)
lifting superiorly (raising shoulder)
lowering body part (putting shoulder down)
Plane in joint
short slipping or gliding movements; i.e. carpals & metacarpals, tarsals and metatarsals (they past each other)
hinge in joint
uniaxial movement, flexion and extension (humerus, ulna)
Pivot in joint
ball and socket. rotation (radius, humerus)
-Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction ex. phalanges and metacarpals
Two saddles fitting together that allow for flexion and extension
Ball and socket joint
multiaxial movement that allows flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, rotation
What is non-axial?
side to side gliding
movement in one plane
movement in two planes
movement in many planes
What are the 3 bones of the knee joint?
Saddle joint, hinge, plane
what does the menisci do in the knee joint?
What are collateral ligaments?
MCL and LCL keep knee stable
What are cruciate ligaments?
ACL and PCL
What does ACL do?
keeps the tibia from moving forward on the femur, prevents hyperextension. located on front
What does PCL do?
prevent backward displacement
What is the glemohumeral?
Shoulder - highly moveable ball and socket joint.
What do the ligaments in shoulder do?
keep shoulder in place
What does bursae do in shoulder?
they are fluid filled sacs that help prevent friction
What is the rotator cuff?
composed of ligaments from four muscles that hold humerus to muscle (subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor)
What type of joint is the elbow?
Connects the head of the radius to the ulna
Ligaments that run along the sides of the knee and limit sideways motion
connects illium to femur
attach to femur and ischia
What's temporomanidublar ?
TMJ. gliding motion
smooth ridge located on the inferior skull, immediately anterior to the mandibular fossa
stabilizes lateral movement
located on articular surfaces
What are sprains?
ligaments are stretched or torn.. heals slowly. Rest, ice, compression, elevation
Dislocation is common in
shoulder. accompanied by tissue damage
What is bursitis?
inflammation.. overuse or injury
What is osteoarthritis?
degenerative joint disease.. most common. wear and tear
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Autoimmune disease. affects less than 1% of people
What is gouty arthritis?
accumulation of uric acid crystals in joints
What is gouty arthritic result of?
high fat diets
What is Lyme disease?
bacteria is passed on through ticks
Describe how the knee joint allows movement as well as stability
The ACL, PCL, Medial and Lateral ligaments of the knee provide the majority of stability to the knee joint when movement is generated by the surrounding muscles
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